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Ti Titanium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

22
Ti
Titanium
Element 22 of Periodic table is Titanium with atomic number 22, atomic weight 47.867. Titanium, symbol Ti, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Titanium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 4 (titanium family). Know everything about Titanium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
22 Ti - Titanium | SchoolMyKids

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous Transition Metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.

It belongs to group 4 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Titanium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Titanium

NameTitanium
Atomic Number22
Atomic SymbolTi
Atomic Weight47.867
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery grey-white metallic
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table4
Group Nametitanium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 10, 2
Melting Point1941 K
Boiling Point3560 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-32-6
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Titanium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 22 to find Titanium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Titanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Titanium History

The element Titanium was discovered by W. Gregor in year 1791 in United Kingdom. Titanium was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1825. Titanium derived its name from Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology.

Gregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite; Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element inrutilein 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 byMatthew A. Hunter.

Titanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Titanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe300080
Abundance in Sun4000100
Abundance in Meteorites550000230000
Abundance in Earth's Crust66000002900000
Abundance in Oceans10.13
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Titanium

The solid state structure of Titanium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
295.08 pm295.08 pm468.55 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 22 Ti Titanium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Titanium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number22
Number of Electrons (with no charge)22
Number of Protons22
Mass Number48
Number of Neutrons26
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 10, 2
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2
Valence Electrons3d2 4s2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States2, 3, 4
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3F2

Bohr Atomic Model of Titanium - Electrons per energy level

22 Ti Titanium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Titanium - neutral Titanium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Titanium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Titanium atom is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The portion of Titanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d2 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Titanium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Titanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Titanium
    Atomic Structure of Titanium

    Titanium atomic radius is 176 pm, while it's covalent radius is 136 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    176 pm (1.76 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    140 pm (1.4 Å)

    Atomic Volume10.621 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius136 pm (1.36 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section6.1
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0044

    Atomic Spectrum of Titanium

    Atomic Spectrum of Titanium | SchoolMyKids

    Titanium Chemical Properties: Titanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Titanium is 7.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity1.54
    ElectronAffinity7.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Titanium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Titanium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st658.8
    2nd1309.8
    3rd2652.5
    4th4174.6
    5th9581
    6th11533
    7th13590
    8th16440
    9th18530
    10th20833
    11th25575
    12th28125
    13th76015
    14th83280
    15th90880
    16th100700
    17th109100
    18th117800
    19th129900
    20th137530
    21st602930
    22nd639294

    Titanium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Titanium Physical Properties

    Density4.507 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $4.11 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume10.621 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus116
    Shear Modulus44 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 110 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.32

    Hardness of Titanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness970 MPa
    Brinell Hardness716 MPa

    Titanium Electrical Properties

    Titanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTitanium

    Electrical Conductivity2500000 S/m
    Resistivity4e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.4

    Titanium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity22 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000086 /K

    Titanium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility4.01e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.919e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0001807

    Optical Properties of Titanium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Titanium

    Speed of Sound4140 m/s

    Titanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Titanium

    Melting Point1941 K (1667.85°C, 3034.13 °F)
    Boiling Point3560 K (3286.85°C, 5948.33 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.4

    Enthalpies of Titanium

    Heat of Fusion18.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization425 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Titanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Titanium

    Titanium has 26 isotopes, with between 38 and 63 nucleons. Titanium has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Titanium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 50Ti.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    38Ti221638Synthetic
    39Ti221739Synthetic
    40Ti221840Synthetic
    41Ti221941Synthetic
    42Ti222042Synthetic
    43Ti222143Synthetic
    44Ti222244Synthetic
    45Ti222345Synthetic
    46Ti2224468.25%StableN/A
    47Ti2225477.44%StableN/A
    48Ti22264873.72%Stable
    49Ti2227495.41%StableN/A
    50Ti2228505.18%StableN/A
    51Ti222951Synthetic
    52Ti223052Synthetic
    53Ti223153Synthetic
    54Ti223254Synthetic
    55Ti223355Synthetic
    56Ti223456Synthetic
    57Ti223557Synthetic
    58Ti223658Synthetic
    59Ti223759Synthetic
    60Ti223860Synthetic
    61Ti223961Synthetic
    62Ti224062Synthetic
    63Ti224163Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-32-6
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23963
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-