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S Sulfur
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

16
S
Sulfur
Element 16 of Periodic table is Sulfur with atomic number 16, atomic weight 32.065. Sulfur, symbol S, has a Face Centered Orthorhombic structure and Yellow color. Sulfur is a Other Nonmetal element. It is part of group 16 (oxygen family). Know everything about Sulfur Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
16 S - Sulfur | SchoolMyKids

Sulfur or sulphur (see spelling differences) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. It is an abundant, multivalent non-metal. Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with chemical formula S8.

It belongs to group 16 of the periodic table having trivial name chalcogens.

Sulfur Facts

Read key information and facts about element Sulfur

NameSulfur
Atomic Number16
Atomic SymbolS
Atomic Weight32.065
PhaseSolid
ColorYellow
Appearancelemon yellow sintered microcrystals
ClassificationOther Nonmetal
Group in Periodic Table16
Group Nameoxygen family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 3
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 6
Melting Point388.36 K
Boiling Point717.87 K
CAS NumberCAS7704-34-9
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Sulfur on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 16 to find Sulfur on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Sulfur on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Sulfur History

The element Sulfur was discovered by Chinese/Indians in year Before 2000 BCE . Sulfur was first isolated by in . Sulfur derived its name from the Latin word sulphur, 'fire and brimstone'.

First used at least 4,000 years ago. Recognized as an element by Antoine Lavoisier in 1777.

Sulfur Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Sulfur in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe50000020000
Abundance in Sun40000010000
Abundance in Meteorites4100000022000000
Abundance in Earth's Crust420000270000
Abundance in Oceans928000179000
Abundance in Humans2000000390000

Crystal Structure of Sulfur

The solid state structure of Sulfur is Face Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
1043.7 pm1284.5 pm2436.9 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFddd 16 S Sulfur - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number70
Crystal StructureFace Centered Orthorhombic

Sulfur Atomic and Orbital Properties

Sulfur atoms have 16 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.

Atomic Number16
Number of Electrons (with no charge)16
Number of Protons16
Mass Number32
Number of Neutrons16
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 6
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p4
Valence Electrons3s2 3p4
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States-2, 2, 4, 6
Oxidation States-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P2

Bohr Atomic Model of Sulfur - Electrons per energy level

16 S Sulfur - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Sulfur - neutral Sulfur atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Sulfur

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Sulfur atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p4. The portion of Sulfur configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Sulfur

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Sulfur atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Sulfur
    Atomic Structure of Sulfur

    Sulfur atomic radius is 88 pm, while it's covalent radius is 102 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    88 pm (0.88 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    100 pm (1 Å)

    Atomic Volume15.53 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius102 pm (1.02 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius180 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.52
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00055

    Atomic Spectrum of Sulfur

    Atomic Spectrum of Sulfur | SchoolMyKids

    Sulfur Chemical Properties: Sulfur Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Sulfur is 200 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.58
    ElectronAffinity200 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Sulfur

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Sulfur

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st999.6
    2nd2252
    3rd3357
    4th4556
    5th7004.3
    6th8495.8
    7th27107
    8th31719
    9th36621
    10th43177
    11th48710
    12th54460
    13th62930
    14th68216
    15th311048
    16th337138

    Sulfur Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Sulfur Physical Properties

    Density1.96 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $1.819 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume15.53 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus 7.7 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Sulfur - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Sulfur Electrical Properties

    Sulfur is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofSulfur

    Electrical Conductivity1e-15 S/m
    Resistivity1000000000000000 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Sulfur Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.205 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Sulfur Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-6.2e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.99e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.0000122

    Optical Properties of Sulfur

    Refractive Index1.001111

    Acoustic Properties of Sulfur

    Speed of Sound-

    Sulfur Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Sulfur

    Melting Point388.36 K (115.21°C, 239.37800000000007 °F)
    Boiling Point717.87 K (444.72°C, 832.4960000000001 °F)
    Critical Temperature1314 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Sulfur

    Heat of Fusion1.73 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization9.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Sulfur Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Sulfur

    Sulfur has 24 isotopes, with between 26 and 49 nucleons. Sulfur has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Sulfur - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 32S, 33S, 34S, 36S.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    26S161026Synthetic
    27S161127Synthetic
    28S161228Synthetic
    29S161329Synthetic
    30S161430Synthetic
    31S161531Synthetic
    32S16163294.93%Stable
    33S1617330.76%StableN/A
    34S1618344.29%StableN/A
    35S161935Synthetic
    36S1620360.02%StableN/A
    37S162137Synthetic
    38S162238Synthetic
    39S162339Synthetic
    40S162440Synthetic
    41S162541Synthetic
    42S162642Synthetic
    43S162743Synthetic
    44S162844Synthetic
    45S162945Synthetic
    46S163046Synthetic
    47S163147Synthetic
    48S163248Synthetic
    49S163349Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7704-34-9
    RTECS Number{RTECSWS4250000, N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
    CID Number {CID5362487, CID5460602, CID139340, CID139602, CID66348, CID66348}
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-