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Ba Barium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

56
Ba
Barium
Element 56 of Periodic table is Barium with atomic number 56, atomic weight 137.327. Barium, symbol Ba, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Barium is a Alkaline Earth Metal element. It is part of group 2 (beryllium family). Know everything about Barium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
56 Ba - Barium | SchoolMyKids

Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic Alkaline Earth Metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element.

It belongs to group 2 of the periodic table having trivial name alkaline earth metals*.

Barium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Barium

NameBarium
Atomic Number56
Atomic SymbolBa
Atomic Weight137.327
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearance-
ClassificationAlkaline Earth Metal
Group in Periodic Table2
Group Nameberyllium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tables -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2
Melting Point1000 K
Boiling Point2143 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-39-3
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Barium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 56 to find Barium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Barium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Barium History

The element Barium was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1772 in United Kingdom. Barium was first isolated by H. Davy in 1808. Barium derived its name from the Greek barys, meaning 'heavy'.

Scheele distinguished a new earth (BaO) in pyrolusite and Davy isolated the metal byelectrolysis.

Barium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Barium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100.09
Abundance in Sun100.1
Abundance in Meteorites2800410
Abundance in Earth's Crust34000051000
Abundance in Oceans301.4
Abundance in Humans30014

Crystal Structure of Barium

The solid state structure of Barium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
502.8 pm502.8 pm502.8 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 56 Ba Barium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Barium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Barium atoms have 56 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number56
Number of Electrons (with no charge)56
Number of Protons56
Mass Number137
Number of Neutrons81
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 6s2
Valence Electrons6s2
Valence (Valency)2
Main Oxidation States2
Oxidation States1, 2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Barium - Electrons per energy level

56 Ba Barium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Barium - neutral Barium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Barium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Barium atom is [Xe] 6s2. The portion of Barium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Barium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Barium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Barium
    Atomic Structure of Barium

    Barium atomic radius is 253 pm, while it's covalent radius is 198 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    253 pm (2.53 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    215 pm (2.15 Å)

    Atomic Volume38.16 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius198 pm (1.98 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius268 pm
    Neutron Cross Section1.3
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00027

    Atomic Spectrum of Barium

    Atomic Spectrum of Barium | SchoolMyKids

    Barium Chemical Properties: Barium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Barium is 13.95 kJ/mol.

    Valence2
    Electronegativity0.89
    ElectronAffinity13.95 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Barium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Barium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st502.9
    2nd965.2
    3rd3600

    Barium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Barium Physical Properties

    Density3.51 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $3.338 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume38.16 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus13
    Shear Modulus4.9 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 9.6 GPa
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Barium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness1.25 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Barium Electrical Properties

    Barium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofBarium

    Electrical Conductivity2900000 S/m
    Resistivity3.5e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Barium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity18 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000206 /K

    Barium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility1.13e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.552e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.00003966

    Optical Properties of Barium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Barium

    Speed of Sound1620 m/s

    Barium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Barium

    Melting Point1000 K (726.85°C, 1340.3300000000002 °F)
    Boiling Point2143 K (1869.85°C, 3397.7299999999996 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Barium

    Heat of Fusion8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization140 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Barium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Barium

    Barium has 40 isotopes, with between 114 and 153 nucleons. Barium has 7 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Barium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 130Ba, 132Ba, 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, 137Ba, 138Ba.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    114Ba5658114Synthetic
    115Ba5659115Synthetic
    116Ba5660116Synthetic
    117Ba5661117Synthetic
    118Ba5662118Synthetic
    119Ba5663119Synthetic
    120Ba5664120Synthetic
    121Ba5665121Synthetic
    122Ba5666122Synthetic
    123Ba5667123Synthetic
    124Ba5668124Synthetic
    125Ba5669125Synthetic
    126Ba5670126Synthetic
    127Ba5671127Synthetic
    128Ba5672128Synthetic
    129Ba5673129Synthetic
    130Ba56741300.106%StableN/A
    131Ba5675131Synthetic
    132Ba56761320.101%StableN/A
    133Ba5677133Synthetic
    134Ba56781342.417%StableN/A
    135Ba56791356.592%StableN/A
    136Ba56801367.854%StableN/A
    137Ba568113711.232%Stable
    138Ba568213871.698%StableN/A
    139Ba5683139Synthetic
    140Ba5684140Synthetic
    141Ba5685141Synthetic
    142Ba5686142Synthetic
    143Ba5687143Synthetic
    144Ba5688144Synthetic
    145Ba5689145Synthetic
    146Ba5690146Synthetic
    147Ba5691147Synthetic
    148Ba5692148Synthetic
    149Ba5693149Synthetic
    150Ba5694150Synthetic
    151Ba5695151Synthetic
    152Ba5696152Synthetic
    153Ba5697153Synthetic