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Pd Palladium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

46
Pd
Palladium
Element 46 of Periodic table is Palladium with atomic number 46, atomic weight 106.42. Palladium, symbol Pd, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Palladium is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 10 (nickel family). Know everything about Palladium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
46 Pd - Palladium | SchoolMyKids

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas.

It belongs to group 10 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Palladium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Palladium

NamePalladium
Atomic Number46
Atomic SymbolPd
Atomic Weight106.42
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table10
Group Namenickel family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18
Melting Point1828.05 K
Boiling Point3236 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-05-3
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Palladium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 46 to find Palladium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Palladium on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Palladium History

The element Palladium was discovered by H. Wollaston in year 1803 in United Kingdom. Palladium was first isolated by H. Wollaston in 1803. Palladium derived its name .

Wollaston discovered it in samples of platinum from South America, but did not publish his results immediately. He had intended to name it after the newly discoveredasteroid,Ceres, but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. Wollaston named it after the more recently discovered asteroidPallas.

Palladium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Palladium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.02
Abundance in Sun30.04
Abundance in Meteorites670130
Abundance in Earth's Crust6.31
Abundance in Oceans--
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Palladium

The solid state structure of Palladium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
389.07 pm389.07 pm389.07 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 46 Pd Palladium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Palladium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Palladium atoms have 46 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number46
Number of Electrons (with no charge)46
Number of Protons46
Mass Number106
Number of Neutrons60
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10
Valence Electrons4d10
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States0, 2, 4
Oxidation States0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Palladium - Electrons per energy level

46 Pd Palladium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
nspdf

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Palladium - neutral Palladium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Palladium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Palladium atom is [Kr] 4d10. The portion of Palladium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Palladium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Palladium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Palladium
    Atomic Structure of Palladium

    Palladium atomic radius is 169 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    169 pm (1.69 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    140 pm (1.4 Å)

    Atomic Volume8.8514 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius131 pm (1.31 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius163 pm
    Neutron Cross Section6.9
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0023

    Atomic Spectrum of Palladium

    Atomic Spectrum of Palladium | SchoolMyKids

    Palladium Chemical Properties: Palladium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Palladium is 53.7 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity2.2
    ElectronAffinity53.7 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Palladium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Palladium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st804.4
    2nd1870
    3rd3177

    Palladium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Palladium Physical Properties

    Density12.023 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.38 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume8.8514 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus121
    Shear Modulus44 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 180 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.39

    Hardness of Palladium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness4.75 MPa
    Vickers Hardness461 MPa
    Brinell Hardness37.3 MPa

    Palladium Electrical Properties

    Palladium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPalladium

    Electrical Conductivity10000000 S/m
    Resistivity1e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Palladium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity72 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000118 /K

    Palladium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility6.57e-8 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility6.992e-9 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0007899

    Optical Properties of Palladium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Palladium

    Speed of Sound3070 m/s

    Palladium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Palladium

    Melting Point1828.05 K (1554.90°C, 2830.82 °F)
    Boiling Point3236 K (2962.85°C, 5365.129999999999 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Palladium

    Heat of Fusion16.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization380 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Palladium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Palladium

    Palladium has 34 isotopes, with between 91 and 124 nucleons. Palladium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Palladium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, 110Pd.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    91Pd464591Synthetic
    92Pd464692Synthetic
    93Pd464793Synthetic
    94Pd464894Synthetic
    95Pd464995Synthetic
    96Pd465096Synthetic
    97Pd465197Synthetic
    98Pd465298Synthetic
    99Pd465399Synthetic
    100Pd4654100Synthetic
    101Pd4655101Synthetic
    102Pd46561021.02%StableN/A
    103Pd4657103Synthetic
    104Pd465810411.14%StableN/A
    105Pd465910522.33%StableN/A
    106Pd466010627.33%Stable
    107Pd4661107Synthetic
    108Pd466210826.46%StableN/A
    109Pd4663109Synthetic
    110Pd466411011.72%StableN/A
    111Pd4665111Synthetic
    112Pd4666112Synthetic
    113Pd4667113Synthetic
    114Pd4668114Synthetic
    115Pd4669115Synthetic
    116Pd4670116Synthetic
    117Pd4671117Synthetic
    118Pd4672118Synthetic
    119Pd4673119Synthetic
    120Pd4674120Synthetic
    121Pd4675121Synthetic
    122Pd4676122Synthetic
    123Pd4677123Synthetic
    124Pd4678124Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-05-3
    RTECS NumberRTECSRT3480500
    CID Number CID23938
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-