Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas.
It belongs to group 10 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Palladium
|Group in Periodic Table||10|
|Group Name||nickel family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d10|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 18|
|Melting Point||1828.05 K|
|Boiling Point||3236 K|
How to Locate Palladium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 46 to find Palladium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Palladium on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Palladium was discovered by H. Wollaston in year 1803 in United Kingdom. Palladium was first isolated by H. Wollaston in 1803. Palladium derived its name .
Wollaston discovered it in samples of platinum from South America, but did not publish his results immediately. He had intended to name it after the newly discoveredasteroid,Ceres, but by the time he published his results in 1804, cerium had taken that name. Wollaston named it after the more recently discovered asteroidPallas.
Palladium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Palladium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2||0.02|
|Abundance in Sun||3||0.04|
|Abundance in Meteorites||670||130|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||6.3||1|
|Abundance in Oceans||-||-|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Palladium
The solid state structure of Palladium is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|389.07 pm||389.07 pm||389.07 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
|Number of atoms per unit cell||4|
The number of atoms per unit cell in a simple cubic, face-centered cubic and body-centred cubic are 1,4,2 respectively.
Palladium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Palladium atoms have 46 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||46|
|Number of Protons||46|
|Number of Neutrons||60|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 18|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d10|
|Main Oxidation States||0, 2, 4|
|Oxidation States||0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Palladium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Palladium - neutral Palladium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Palladium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Palladium atom is [Kr] 4d10. The portion of Palladium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Palladium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Palladium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Palladium
Palladium atomic radius is 169 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
169 pm (1.69 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
140 pm (1.4 Å)
|Atomic Volume||8.8514 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||131 pm (1.31 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||163 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||6.9|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0023|
Atomic Spectrum of Palladium
Palladium Chemical Properties: Palladium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Palladium is 53.7 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Palladium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Palladium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Palladium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Palladium Physical Properties
|Density||12.023 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.38 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||8.8514 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||44 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||180 GPa|
Hardness of Palladium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||4.75 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||461 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||37.3 MPa|
Palladium Electrical Properties
Palladium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofPalladium
|Electrical Conductivity||10000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||1e-7 m Ω|
Palladium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||72 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000118 /K|
Palladium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||6.57e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||6.992e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0007899|
Optical Properties of Palladium
Acoustic Properties of Palladium
|Speed of Sound||3070 m/s|
Palladium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Palladium
|Melting Point||1828.05 K (1554.90°C, 2830.82 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3236 K (2962.85°C, 5365.129999999999 °F)|
Enthalpies of Palladium
|Heat of Fusion||16.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||380 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Palladium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Palladium
Palladium has 34 isotopes, with between 91 and 124 nucleons. Palladium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Palladium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, 110Pd.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
Compare Palladium with other elements
Compare Palladium with all Group 10 elements
Compare Palladium with all Period 5 elements
Compare Palladium with all Transition Metal elements
What is the electronic configuration of Palladium?
The electronic configuration of Palladium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10.
What is the abbreviated electronic configuration of Palladium?
The abbreviated electronic configuration of Palladium is [Kr] 4d10. To form abbreviated notation of electronic configuration, the completely filled subshells are replaced by the noble gas of the preceding period in square brackets.
What is the symbol of Palladium?
Symbol of Palladium is Pd. Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.
What is the position of Palladium in the Periodic Table?
Palladium is a chemical element with the symbol Pd and atomic number 46. Palladium is the 46 element on the periodic table. It is located in group 10 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
What is the atomic number of Palladium?
The atomic number of Palladium is 46.
What is the color of Palladium?
Palladium is of Silver color.
Who discovered Palladium?
The element Palladium was discovered by H. Wollaston in year 1803 in United Kingdom. Palladium was first isolated by H. Wollaston in 1803.
How many valence electrons does a Palladium atom have?
Palladium has 4 valence electrons. Palladium has 46 electrons out of which 4 valence electrons are present in the 4d10 outer orbitals of atom.
What is the melting Point of Palladium?
Melting Point of Palladium is 1828.05 K.
What is the boiling Point of Palladium?
Boiling Point of Palladium is 3236 K.
What is the melting Point of Palladium in Kelvin?
Melting Point of Palladium in Kelvin is 1828.05 K.
What is the boiling Point of Palladium in Kelvin?
Boiling Point of Palladium in Kelvin is 3236 K.
What is the electronic configuration of Palladium 46?
The electronic configuration of Palladium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10.
How do you write the electron configuration for Palladium?
The electronic configuration of Palladium will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10.