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Xe Xenon
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

54
Xe
Xenon
Element 54 of Periodic table is Xenon with atomic number 54, atomic weight 131.293. Xenon, symbol Xe, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Colorless color. Xenon is a Noble Gas element. It is part of group 18 (helium family or neon family). Know everything about Xenon Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
54 Xe - Xenon | SchoolMyKids

Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54. It is a colorless, dense, odorless Noble Gas, that occurs in the Earth's atmosphere in trace amounts. Although generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a few chemical reactions such as the formation of xenon hexafluoroplatinate, the first Noble Gas compound to be synthesized.

It belongs to group 18 of the periodic table having trivial name noble gases, aerogens.

Xenon Facts

Read key information and facts about element Xenon

NameXenon
Atomic Number54
Atomic SymbolXe
Atomic Weight131.293
PhaseGas (Monoatomic Gas )
ColorColorless
Appearancecolorless gas, exhibiting a blue glow when placed in a high voltage electric field
ClassificationNoble Gas
Group in Periodic Table18
Group Namehelium family or neon family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 5
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Melting Point161.3 K
Boiling Point165.1 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-63-3
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Xenon on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 54 to find Xenon on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Xenon on periodic table look for cross section of group 18 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Xenon History

The element Xenon was discovered by W. Ramsay and W. Travers in year 1898 in United Kingdom. Xenon was first isolated by W. Ramsay and W. Travers in 1898. Xenon derived its name from the Greek xenos, meaning 'strange'.

On July 12, 1898 Ramsay separated a third noble gas within three weeks, from liquid argon by difference in boiling point.

Xenon Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Xenon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100.09
Abundance in Sun--
Abundance in Meteorites--
Abundance in Earth's Crust0.0200.003
Abundance in Oceans0.0050.00024
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Xenon

The solid state structure of Xenon is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
620.23 pm620.23 pm620.23 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 54 Xe Xenon - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Xenon Atomic and Orbital Properties

Xenon atoms have 54 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 8] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number54
Number of Electrons (with no charge)54
Number of Protons54
Mass Number131
Number of Neutrons77
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 18, 8
Electron Configuration[Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6
Valence Electrons5s2 5p6
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States0
Oxidation States0, 2, 4, 6, 8
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)1S0

Bohr Atomic Model of Xenon - Electrons per energy level

54 Xe Xenon - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Xenon - neutral Xenon atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Xenon

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Xenon atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p6. The portion of Xenon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5s2 5p6, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Xenon

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Xenon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Xenon
    Atomic Structure of Xenon

    Xenon atomic radius is 108 pm, while it's covalent radius is 130 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    108 pm (1.08 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    - (0 Å)

    Atomic Volume22.4128 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius130 pm (1.3 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius216 pm
    Neutron Cross Section25
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0083

    Atomic Spectrum of Xenon

    Atomic Spectrum of Xenon | SchoolMyKids

    Xenon Chemical Properties: Xenon Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Xenon is 0 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.6
    ElectronAffinity0 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Xenon

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Xenon

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st1170.4
    2nd2046.4
    3rd3099.4

    Xenon Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Xenon Physical Properties

    Density0.0059 g/cm3
    Molar Volume22.4128 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Xenon - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Xenon Electrical Properties

    Xenon is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofXenon

    Electrical Conductivity-
    Resistivity-
    Superconducting Point-

    Xenon Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity0.00565 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion-

    Xenon Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-4.3e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-5.65e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-2.54e-8

    Optical Properties of Xenon

    Refractive Index1.000702

    Acoustic Properties of Xenon

    Speed of Sound1090 m/s

    Xenon Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Xenon

    Melting Point161.3 K (-111.85°C, -169.32999999999993 °F)
    Boiling Point165.1 K (-108.05°C, -162.48999999999995 °F)
    Critical Temperature289.77 K
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Xenon

    Heat of Fusion2.3 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization12.64 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Xenon Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Xenon

    Xenon has 38 isotopes, with between 110 and 147 nucleons. Xenon has 9 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Xenon - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 124Xe, 126Xe, 128Xe, 129Xe, 130Xe, 131Xe, 132Xe, 134Xe, 136Xe.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    110Xe5456110Synthetic
    111Xe5457111Synthetic
    112Xe5458112Synthetic
    113Xe5459113Synthetic
    114Xe5460114Synthetic
    115Xe5461115Synthetic
    116Xe5462116Synthetic
    117Xe5463117Synthetic
    118Xe5464118Synthetic
    119Xe5465119Synthetic
    120Xe5466120Synthetic
    121Xe5467121Synthetic
    122Xe5468122Synthetic
    123Xe5469123Synthetic
    124Xe54701240.09%StableN/A
    125Xe5471125Synthetic
    126Xe54721260.09%StableN/A
    127Xe5473127Synthetic
    128Xe54741281.92%StableN/A
    129Xe547512926.44%StableN/A
    130Xe54761304.08%StableN/A
    131Xe547713121.18%Stable
    132Xe547813226.89%StableN/A
    133Xe5479133Synthetic
    134Xe548013410.44%StableN/A
    135Xe5481135Synthetic
    136Xe54821368.87%StableN/A
    137Xe5483137Synthetic
    138Xe5484138Synthetic
    139Xe5485139Synthetic
    140Xe5486140Synthetic
    141Xe5487141Synthetic
    142Xe5488142Synthetic
    143Xe5489143Synthetic
    144Xe5490144Synthetic
    145Xe5491145Synthetic
    146Xe5492146Synthetic
    147Xe5493147Synthetic