Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white Metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.
It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens. It got its trivial name from tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV).
Read key information and facts about element Germanium
|Group in Periodic Table||14|
|Group Name||carbon family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 4|
|Melting Point||1211.4 K|
|Boiling Point||3093 K|
How to Locate Germanium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 32 to find Germanium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Germanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Germanium was discovered by C. A. Winkler in year 1886 in Germany. Germanium was first isolated by in . Germanium derived its name from Germania, the Latin name for Germany.
In February 1886 Winkler found inargyroditethe eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.
Germanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Germanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||200||3|
|Abundance in Sun||200||3|
|Abundance in Meteorites||21000||4900|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||1400||390|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.06||0.0051|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Germanium
The solid state structure of Germanium is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|565.75 pm||565.75 pm||565.75 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
Germanium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||32|
|Number of Protons||32|
|Number of Neutrons||41|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 4|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2|
|Valence Electrons||4s2 4p2|
|Main Oxidation States||-4, 2, 4|
|Oxidation States||-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3P0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Germanium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Germanium - neutral Germanium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Germanium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Germanium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The portion of Germanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Germanium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Germanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Germanium
Germanium atomic radius is 125 pm, while it's covalent radius is 122 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
125 pm (1.25 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
125 pm (1.25 Å)
|Atomic Volume||13.646 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||122 pm (1.22 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||211 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||2.2|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0011|
Atomic Spectrum of Germanium
Germanium Chemical Properties: Germanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Germanium is 119 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Germanium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Germanium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Germanium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Germanium Physical Properties
|Density||5.323 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.6 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||13.646 cm3/mol|
Hardness of Germanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||6 MPa|
Germanium Electrical Properties
Germanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGermanium
|Electrical Conductivity||2000 S/m|
|Resistivity||0.0005 m Ω|
Germanium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||60 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.000006 /K|
Germanium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.5e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.09e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.00000798|
Optical Properties of Germanium
Acoustic Properties of Germanium
|Speed of Sound||5400 m/s|
Germanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Germanium
|Melting Point||1211.4 K (938.25°C, 1720.8500000000004 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3093 K (2819.85°C, 5107.73 °F)|
Enthalpies of Germanium
|Heat of Fusion||31.8 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||334 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-536 J/(kg K)|
Germanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Germanium
Germanium has 32 isotopes, with between 58 and 89 nucleons. Germanium has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Germanium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|