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Ge Germanium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

32
Ge
Germanium
Element 32 of Periodic table is Germanium with atomic number 32, atomic weight 72.64. Germanium, symbol Ge, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Germanium is a Metalloid element. It is part of group 14 (carbon family). Know everything about Germanium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
32 Ge - Germanium | SchoolMyKids

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white Metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.

It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens. It got its trivial name from tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV).

Germanium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Germanium

NameGermanium
Atomic Number32
Atomic SymbolGe
Atomic Weight72.64
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancegrayish-white
ClassificationMetalloid
Group in Periodic Table14
Group Namecarbon family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 4
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 4
Melting Point1211.4 K
Boiling Point3093 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-56-4
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Germanium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 32 to find Germanium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Germanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Germanium History

The element Germanium was discovered by C. A. Winkler in year 1886 in Germany. Germanium was first isolated by in . Germanium derived its name from Germania, the Latin name for Germany.

In February 1886 Winkler found inargyroditethe eka-silicon that Mendeleev had predicted in 1871.

Germanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Germanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe2003
Abundance in Sun2003
Abundance in Meteorites210004900
Abundance in Earth's Crust1400390
Abundance in Oceans0.060.0051
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Germanium

The solid state structure of Germanium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
565.75 pm565.75 pm565.75 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 32 Ge Germanium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Germanium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number32
Number of Electrons (with no charge)32
Number of Protons32
Mass Number73
Number of Neutrons41
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 4
Electron Configuration[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Valence Electrons4s2 4p2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States-4, 2, 4
Oxidation States-4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P0

Bohr Atomic Model of Germanium - Electrons per energy level

32 Ge Germanium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Germanium - neutral Germanium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Germanium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Germanium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The portion of Germanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4s2 4p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Germanium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Germanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Germanium
    Atomic Structure of Germanium

    Germanium atomic radius is 125 pm, while it's covalent radius is 122 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    125 pm (1.25 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    125 pm (1.25 Å)

    Atomic Volume13.646 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius122 pm (1.22 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius211 pm
    Neutron Cross Section2.2
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0011

    Atomic Spectrum of Germanium

    Atomic Spectrum of Germanium | SchoolMyKids

    Germanium Chemical Properties: Germanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Germanium is 119 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity2.01
    ElectronAffinity119 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Germanium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Germanium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st762
    2nd1537.5
    3rd3302.1
    4th4411
    5th9020

    Germanium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Germanium Physical Properties

    Density5.323 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $5.6 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume13.646 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus-
    Shear Modulus-
    Bulk Modulus -
    Poisson Ratio-

    Hardness of Germanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness6 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness-

    Germanium Electrical Properties

    Germanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofGermanium

    Electrical Conductivity2000 S/m
    Resistivity0.0005 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Germanium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity60 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.000006 /K

    Germanium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.5e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-1.09e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.00000798

    Optical Properties of Germanium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Germanium

    Speed of Sound5400 m/s

    Germanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Germanium

    Melting Point1211.4 K (938.25°C, 1720.8500000000004 °F)
    Boiling Point3093 K (2819.85°C, 5107.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Germanium

    Heat of Fusion31.8 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization334 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-536 J/(kg K)

    Germanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Germanium

    Germanium has 32 isotopes, with between 58 and 89 nucleons. Germanium has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Germanium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    58Ge322658Synthetic
    59Ge322759Synthetic
    60Ge322860Synthetic
    61Ge322961Synthetic
    62Ge323062Synthetic
    63Ge323163Synthetic
    64Ge323264Synthetic
    65Ge323365Synthetic
    66Ge323466Synthetic
    67Ge323567Synthetic
    68Ge323668Synthetic
    69Ge323769Synthetic
    70Ge32387020.84%StableN/A
    71Ge323971Synthetic
    72Ge32407227.54%StableN/A
    73Ge3241737.73%Stable
    74Ge32427436.28%StableN/A
    75Ge324375Synthetic
    76Ge3244767.61%StableN/A
    77Ge324577Synthetic
    78Ge324678Synthetic
    79Ge324779Synthetic
    80Ge324880Synthetic
    81Ge324981Synthetic
    82Ge325082Synthetic
    83Ge325183Synthetic
    84Ge325284Synthetic
    85Ge325385Synthetic
    86Ge325486Synthetic
    87Ge325587Synthetic
    88Ge325688Synthetic
    89Ge325789Synthetic