• Explore SchoolMyKids in English

Al Aluminium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

13
Al
Aluminium
Element 13 of Periodic table is Aluminium with atomic number 13, atomic weight 26.981538. Aluminium, symbol Al, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Aluminium is a Post Transition Metal element. It is part of group 13 (boron family). Know everything about Aluminium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
13 Al - Aluminium | SchoolMyKids

Aluminium (or aluminum; see different endings) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.

It belongs to group 13 of the periodic table having trivial name triels, icosagens. It got its trivial name from triels from Greek tri (three, III).

Aluminium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Aluminium

NameAluminium
Atomic Number13
Atomic SymbolAl
Atomic Weight26.981538
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery gray metallic
ClassificationPost Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table13
Group Nameboron family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 3
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 3
Melting Point933.47 K
Boiling Point2792 K
CAS NumberCAS7429-90-5
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Aluminium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 13 to find Aluminium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Aluminium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Aluminium History

The element Aluminium was discovered by H.C.Ørsted in year 1825 in Denmark. Aluminium was first isolated by H.C.Ørsted in 1825. Aluminium derived its name from alumina, a compound (originally aluminum).

Antoine Lavoisier predicted in 1787 thatalumineis the oxide of an undiscovered element, and in 1808 Humphry Davy tried to decompose it. Although he failed, he suggested the present name. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminium in 1825.

Aluminium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Aluminium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe500002000
Abundance in Sun600003000
Abundance in Meteorites93000006700000
Abundance in Earth's Crust8200000063000000
Abundance in Oceans51.1
Abundance in Humans900210

Crystal Structure of Aluminium

The solid state structure of Aluminium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
404.95 pm404.95 pm404.95 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 13 Al Aluminium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Aluminium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.

Atomic Number13
Number of Electrons (with no charge)13
Number of Protons13
Mass Number27
Number of Neutrons14
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 3
Electron Configuration[Ne] 3s2 3p1
Valence Electrons3s2 3p1
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States-2, -1, 1, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)2P1/2

Bohr Atomic Model of Aluminium - Electrons per energy level

13 Al Aluminium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
nspdf

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Aluminium - neutral Aluminium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Aluminium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Aluminium atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. The portion of Aluminium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Aluminium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Aluminium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Aluminium
    Atomic Structure of Aluminium

    Aluminium atomic radius is 118 pm, while it's covalent radius is 118 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    118 pm (1.18 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    125 pm (1.25 Å)

    Atomic Volume9.99 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius118 pm (1.18 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius184 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.233
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.03

    Atomic Spectrum of Aluminium

    Atomic Spectrum of Aluminium | SchoolMyKids

    Aluminium Chemical Properties: Aluminium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Aluminium is 42.5 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.61
    ElectronAffinity42.5 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Aluminium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Aluminium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st577.5
    2nd1816.7
    3rd2744.8
    4th11577
    5th14842
    6th18379
    7th23326
    8th27465
    9th31853
    10th38473
    11th42647
    12th201266
    13th222316

    Aluminium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Aluminium Physical Properties

    Density2.7 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $2.375 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume9.99 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus70
    Shear Modulus26 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 76 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.35

    Hardness of Aluminium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness2.75 MPa
    Vickers Hardness167 MPa
    Brinell Hardness245 MPa

    Aluminium Electrical Properties

    Aluminium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofAluminium

    Electrical Conductivity38000000 S/m
    Resistivity2.6e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point1.175

    Aluminium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity235 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000231 /K

    Aluminium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility7.8e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility2.1e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0000211

    Optical Properties of Aluminium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Aluminium

    Speed of Sound5100 m/s

    Aluminium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Aluminium

    Melting Point933.47 K (660.32°C, 1220.576 °F)
    Boiling Point2792 K (2518.85°C, 4565.929999999999 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point1.175

    Enthalpies of Aluminium

    Heat of Fusion10.7 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization293 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Aluminium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Aluminium

    Aluminium has 22 isotopes, with between 21 and 42 nucleons. Aluminium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Aluminium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 27Al.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    21Al13821Synthetic
    22Al13922Synthetic
    23Al131023Synthetic
    24Al131124Synthetic
    25Al131225Synthetic
    26Al131326Synthetic
    27Al131427100%Stable
    28Al131528Synthetic
    29Al131629Synthetic
    30Al131730Synthetic
    31Al131831Synthetic
    32Al131932Synthetic
    33Al132033Synthetic
    34Al132134Synthetic
    35Al132235Synthetic
    36Al132336Synthetic
    37Al132437Synthetic
    38Al132538Synthetic
    39Al132639Synthetic
    40Al132740Synthetic
    41Al132841Synthetic
    42Al132942Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7429-90-5
    RTECS NumberRTECSBD0330000
    CID Number CID5359268
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-