Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Aluminium (or aluminum; see different endings) is a chemical element in the boron group with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. Aluminium is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust.
It belongs to group 13 of the periodic table having trivial name triels, icosagens. It got its trivial name from triels from Greek tri (three, III).
Read key information and facts about element Aluminium
|Appearance||silvery gray metallic|
|Classification||Post Transition Metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||13|
|Group Name||boron family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 3|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p1|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 3|
|Melting Point||933.47 K|
|Boiling Point||2792 K|
How to Locate Aluminium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 13 to find Aluminium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Aluminium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
The element Aluminium was discovered by H.C.Ørsted in year 1825 in Denmark. Aluminium was first isolated by H.C.Ørsted in 1825. Aluminium derived its name from alumina, a compound (originally aluminum).
Antoine Lavoisier predicted in 1787 thatalumineis the oxide of an undiscovered element, and in 1808 Humphry Davy tried to decompose it. Although he failed, he suggested the present name. Hans Christian Ørsted was the first to isolate metallic aluminium in 1825.
Aluminium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Aluminium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||50000||2000|
|Abundance in Sun||60000||3000|
|Abundance in Meteorites||9300000||6700000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||82000000||63000000|
|Abundance in Oceans||5||1.1|
|Abundance in Humans||900||210|
Crystal Structure of Aluminium
The solid state structure of Aluminium is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|404.95 pm||404.95 pm||404.95 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
Aluminium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Aluminium atoms have 13 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||13|
|Number of Protons||13|
|Number of Neutrons||14|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 3|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s2 3p1|
|Valence Electrons||3s2 3p1|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||-2, -1, 1, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2P1/2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Aluminium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Aluminium - neutral Aluminium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Aluminium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Aluminium atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p1. The portion of Aluminium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Aluminium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Aluminium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Aluminium
Aluminium atomic radius is 118 pm, while it's covalent radius is 118 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
118 pm (1.18 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
125 pm (1.25 Å)
|Atomic Volume||9.99 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||118 pm (1.18 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||184 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.233|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.03|
Atomic Spectrum of Aluminium
Aluminium Chemical Properties: Aluminium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Aluminium is 42.5 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Aluminium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Aluminium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Aluminium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Aluminium Physical Properties
|Density||2.7 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $2.375 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||9.99 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||26 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||76 GPa|
Hardness of Aluminium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||2.75 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||167 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||245 MPa|
Aluminium Electrical Properties
Aluminium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofAluminium
|Electrical Conductivity||38000000 S/m|
|Resistivity||2.6e-8 m Ω|
Aluminium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||235 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000231 /K|
Aluminium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||7.8e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||2.1e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0000211|
Optical Properties of Aluminium
Acoustic Properties of Aluminium
|Speed of Sound||5100 m/s|
Aluminium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Aluminium
|Melting Point||933.47 K (660.32°C, 1220.576 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2792 K (2518.85°C, 4565.929999999999 °F)|
Enthalpies of Aluminium
|Heat of Fusion||10.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||293 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Aluminium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Aluminium
Aluminium has 22 isotopes, with between 21 and 42 nucleons. Aluminium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Aluminium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 27Al.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|