Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Erbium is a chemical element in the Lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden, where yttrium, ytterbium, and terbium were discovered.
It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Erbium
|Group in Periodic Table||-|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 6|
|Block in Periodic Table||f -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2|
|Melting Point||1770 K|
|Boiling Point||3141 K|
How to Locate Erbium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 68 to find Erbium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Erbium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Erbium was discovered by G. Mosander in year 1842 in Sweden. Erbium was first isolated by T. Cleve in 1879. Erbium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden.
Mosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper anderbia, and laterterbiatoo.
Erbium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Erbium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2||0.01|
|Abundance in Sun||1||0.01|
|Abundance in Meteorites||180||20|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||3000||370|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.0009||0.000033|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Erbium
The solid state structure of Erbium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|355.88 pm||355.88 pm||558.74 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Erbium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Erbium atoms have 68 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3H6.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||68|
|Number of Protons||68|
|Number of Neutrons||99|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|Valence Electrons||4f12 6s2|
|Main Oxidation States||3|
|Oxidation States||0, 2, 3|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3H6|
Bohr Atomic Model of Erbium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Erbium - neutral Erbium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Erbium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Erbium atom is [Xe] 4f12 6s2. The portion of Erbium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f12 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Erbium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Erbium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f12 6s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Erbium
Erbium atomic radius is 226 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
226 pm (2.26 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
175 pm (1.75 Å)
|Atomic Volume||18.449 cm3/mol|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||165|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.036|
Atomic Spectrum of Erbium
Erbium Chemical Properties: Erbium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Erbium is 50 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Erbium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Erbium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Erbium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Erbium Physical Properties
|Density||9.066 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $8.86 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||18.449 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||28 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||44 GPa|
Hardness of Erbium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Vickers Hardness||589 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||814 MPa|
Erbium Electrical Properties
Erbium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofErbium
|Electrical Conductivity||1200000 S/m|
|Resistivity||8.59e-7 m Ω|
Erbium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||15 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000122 /K|
Erbium Magnetic Properties
|Curie Point||32 K|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||0.00000377 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||6.30566e-7 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0341788|
Optical Properties of Erbium
Acoustic Properties of Erbium
|Speed of Sound||2830 m/s|
Erbium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Erbium
|Melting Point||1770 K (1496.85°C, 2726.33 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3141 K (2867.85°C, 5194.129999999999 °F)|
Enthalpies of Erbium
|Heat of Fusion||19.9 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||285 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Erbium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Erbium
Erbium has 35 isotopes, with between 143 and 177 nucleons. Erbium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Erbium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 170Er.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|