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Er Erbium
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

68
Er
Erbium
Element 68 of Periodic table is Erbium with atomic number 68, atomic weight 167.259. Erbium, symbol Er, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Erbium is a Lanthanide element. It is part of group null (). Know everything about Erbium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
68 Er - Erbium | SchoolMyKids

Erbium is a chemical element in the Lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden, where yttrium, ytterbium, and terbium were discovered.

It belongs to group of the periodic table having trivial name .

Erbium Facts

Read key information and facts about element Erbium

NameErbium
Atomic Number68
Atomic SymbolEr
Atomic Weight167.259
PhaseSolid
ColorSilver
Appearancesilvery white
ClassificationLanthanide
Group in Periodic Table-
Group Name
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablef -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Melting Point1770 K
Boiling Point3141 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-52-0
Neighborhood Elements
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Erbium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 68 to find Erbium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Erbium on periodic table look for cross section of group - and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Erbium History

The element Erbium was discovered by G. Mosander in year 1842 in Sweden. Erbium was first isolated by T. Cleve in 1879. Erbium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden.

Mosander managed to split the old yttria into yttria proper anderbia, and laterterbiatoo.

Erbium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Erbium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe20.01
Abundance in Sun10.01
Abundance in Meteorites18020
Abundance in Earth's Crust3000370
Abundance in Oceans0.00090.000033
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Erbium

The solid state structure of Erbium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
355.88 pm355.88 pm558.74 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameP63/mmc 68 Er Erbium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number194
Crystal StructureSimple Hexagonal

Erbium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Erbium atoms have 68 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3H6.

Atomic Number68
Number of Electrons (with no charge)68
Number of Protons68
Mass Number167
Number of Neutrons99
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f12 6s2
Valence Electrons4f12 6s2
Valence (Valency)3
Main Oxidation States3
Oxidation States0, 2, 3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3H6

Bohr Atomic Model of Erbium - Electrons per energy level

68 Er Erbium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Erbium - neutral Erbium atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Erbium

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Erbium atom is [Xe] 4f12 6s2. The portion of Erbium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f12 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Erbium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Erbium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f12 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Erbium
    Atomic Structure of Erbium

    Erbium atomic radius is 226 pm, while it's covalent radius is - .

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    226 pm (2.26 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    175 pm (1.75 Å)

    Atomic Volume18.449 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius-
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section165
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.036

    Atomic Spectrum of Erbium

    Atomic Spectrum of Erbium | SchoolMyKids

    Erbium Chemical Properties: Erbium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Erbium is 50 kJ/mol.

    Valence3
    Electronegativity1.24
    ElectronAffinity50 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Erbium

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Erbium

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st589.3
    2nd1150
    3rd2194
    4th4120

    Erbium Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Erbium Physical Properties

    Density9.066 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $8.86 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume18.449 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus70
    Shear Modulus28 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 44 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.24

    Hardness of Erbium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness-
    Vickers Hardness589 MPa
    Brinell Hardness814 MPa

    Erbium Electrical Properties

    Erbium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofErbium

    Electrical Conductivity1200000 S/m
    Resistivity8.59e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point-

    Erbium Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity15 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000122 /K

    Erbium Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point32 K
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility0.00000377 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility6.30566e-7 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0341788

    Optical Properties of Erbium

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Erbium

    Speed of Sound2830 m/s

    Erbium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Erbium

    Melting Point1770 K (1496.85°C, 2726.33 °F)
    Boiling Point3141 K (2867.85°C, 5194.129999999999 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point-

    Enthalpies of Erbium

    Heat of Fusion19.9 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization285 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Erbium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Erbium

    Erbium has 35 isotopes, with between 143 and 177 nucleons. Erbium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Erbium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 170Er.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    143Er6875143Synthetic
    144Er6876144Synthetic
    145Er6877145Synthetic
    146Er6878146Synthetic
    147Er6879147Synthetic
    148Er6880148Synthetic
    149Er6881149Synthetic
    150Er6882150Synthetic
    151Er6883151Synthetic
    152Er6884152Synthetic
    153Er6885153Synthetic
    154Er6886154Synthetic
    155Er6887155Synthetic
    156Er6888156Synthetic
    157Er6889157Synthetic
    158Er6890158Synthetic
    159Er6891159Synthetic
    160Er6892160Synthetic
    161Er6893161Synthetic
    162Er68941620.14%StableN/A
    163Er6895163Synthetic
    164Er68961641.61%StableN/A
    165Er6897165Synthetic
    166Er689816633.61%StableN/A
    167Er689916722.93%Stable
    168Er6810016826.78%StableN/A
    169Er68101169Synthetic
    170Er6810217014.93%StableN/A
    171Er68103171Synthetic
    172Er68104172Synthetic
    173Er68105173Synthetic
    174Er68106174Synthetic
    175Er68107175Synthetic
    176Er68108176Synthetic
    177Er68109177Synthetic

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-52-0
    RTECS Number-
    CID Number CID23980
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-