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W Tungsten
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

74
W
Tungsten
Element 74 of Periodic table is Tungsten with atomic number 74, atomic weight 183.84. Tungsten, symbol W, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Tungsten is a Transition Metal element. It is part of group 6 (chromium family). Know everything about Tungsten Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
74 W - Tungsten | SchoolMyKids

Tungsten, also known as wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The word tungsten comes from the Swedish language tung sten, which directly translates to heavy stone. Its name in Swedish is volfram, however, in order to distinguish it from scheelite, which in Swedish is alternatively named tungsten.

It belongs to group 6 of the periodic table having trivial name .

Tungsten Facts

Read key information and facts about element Tungsten

NameTungsten
Atomic Number74
Atomic SymbolW
Atomic Weight183.84
PhaseSolid
ColorGray
Appearancegrayish white, lustrous
ClassificationTransition Metal
Group in Periodic Table6
Group Namechromium family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tabled -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Melting Point3695 K
Boiling Point5828 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-33-7
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Tungsten on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 74 to find Tungsten on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Tungsten on periodic table look for cross section of group 6 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Tungsten History

The element Tungsten was discovered by W. Scheele in year 1781 in Spain. Tungsten was first isolated by J. and F. Elhuyar in 1783. Tungsten derived its name from the Swedish tung sten, 'heavy stone' (W is wolfram, the old name of the tungsten mineral wolframite).

Scheele obtained from scheelitean oxide of a new element. The Elhuyars obtainedtungstic acid from wolframite and reduced it with charcoal.

Tungsten Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Tungsten in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe0.50.003
Abundance in Sun40.03
Abundance in Meteorites12010
Abundance in Earth's Crust1100120
Abundance in Oceans0.120.0040
Abundance in Humans--

Crystal Structure of Tungsten

The solid state structure of Tungsten is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
316.52 pm316.52 pm316.52 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameIm_ 3m 74 W Tungsten - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number229
Crystal StructureBody Centered Cubic

Tungsten Atomic and Orbital Properties

Tungsten atoms have 74 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5D0.

Atomic Number74
Number of Electrons (with no charge)74
Number of Protons74
Mass Number184
Number of Neutrons110
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 12, 2
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2
Valence Electrons5d4 6s2
Valence (Valency)6
Main Oxidation States4, 6
Oxidation States-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)5D0

Bohr Atomic Model of Tungsten - Electrons per energy level

74 W Tungsten - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Tungsten - neutral Tungsten atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Tungsten

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Tungsten atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d4 6s2. The portion of Tungsten configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 5d4 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Tungsten

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Tungsten atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d4 6s2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Tungsten
    Atomic Structure of Tungsten

    Tungsten atomic radius is 193 pm, while it's covalent radius is 146 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    193 pm (1.93 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    135 pm (1.35 Å)

    Atomic Volume9.47 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius146 pm (1.46 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius-
    Neutron Cross Section18.4
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.0036

    Atomic Spectrum of Tungsten

    Atomic Spectrum of Tungsten | SchoolMyKids

    Tungsten Chemical Properties: Tungsten Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Tungsten is 78.6 kJ/mol.

    Valence6
    Electronegativity2.36
    ElectronAffinity78.6 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Tungsten

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Tungsten

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st770
    2nd1700

    Tungsten Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Tungsten Physical Properties

    Density19.25 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $17.6 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume9.47 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus411
    Shear Modulus161 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 310 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.28

    Hardness of Tungsten - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness7.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness3430 MPa
    Brinell Hardness2570 MPa

    Tungsten Electrical Properties

    Tungsten is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTungsten

    Electrical Conductivity20000000 S/m
    Resistivity5e-8 m Ω
    Superconducting Point0.015

    Tungsten Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity170 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000045 /K

    Tungsten Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeParamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility4.59e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility8.44e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.0000884

    Optical Properties of Tungsten

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Tungsten

    Speed of Sound5174 m/s

    Tungsten Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Tungsten

    Melting Point3695 K (3421.85°C, 6191.33 °F)
    Boiling Point5828 K (5554.85°C, 10030.73 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point0.015

    Enthalpies of Tungsten

    Heat of Fusion35 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization800 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Tungsten Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Tungsten

    Tungsten has 35 isotopes, with between 158 and 192 nucleons. Tungsten has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Tungsten - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 180W, 182W, 183W, 184W, 186W.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    158W7484158Synthetic
    159W7485159Synthetic
    160W7486160Synthetic
    161W7487161Synthetic
    162W7488162Synthetic
    163W7489163Synthetic
    164W7490164Synthetic
    165W7491165Synthetic
    166W7492166Synthetic
    167W7493167Synthetic
    168W7494168Synthetic
    169W7495169Synthetic
    170W7496170Synthetic
    171W7497171Synthetic
    172W7498172Synthetic
    173W7499173Synthetic
    174W74100174Synthetic
    175W74101175Synthetic
    176W74102176Synthetic
    177W74103177Synthetic
    178W74104178Synthetic
    179W74105179Synthetic
    180W741061800.12%StableN/A
    181W74107181Synthetic
    182W7410818226.5%StableN/A
    183W7410918314.31%StableN/A
    184W7411018430.64%Stable
    185W74111185Synthetic
    186W7411218628.43%StableN/A
    187W74113187Synthetic
    188W74114188Synthetic
    189W74115189Synthetic
    190W74116190Synthetic
    191W74117191Synthetic
    192W74118192Synthetic

    Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

    Database Search

    List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

    DatabaseIdentifier number
    CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)CAS7440-33-7
    RTECS NumberRTECSYO7175000
    CID Number CID23964
    Gmelin Number-
    NSC Number-

    Compare Tungsten with other elements

    Compare Tungsten with all Group 6 elements

    Compare Tungsten with all Period 6 elements

    Compare Tungsten with all Transition Metal elements