Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy Post Transition Metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.
It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens. It got its trivial name from tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV).
Read key information and facts about element Lead
|Classification||Post Transition Metal|
|Group in Periodic Table||14|
|Group Name||carbon family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 6|
|Block in Periodic Table||p -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4|
|Melting Point||600.61 K|
|Boiling Point||2022 K|
How to Locate Lead on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 82 to find Lead on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lead on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Lead was discovered by Africans in year 7000 BCE . Lead was first isolated by Abydos, Egypt in 3800 BCE. Lead derived its name from English word (plumbum in Latin).
It is believed that lead smelting began at least 9,000 years ago, and the oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated circa 3800 BCE.
Lead Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Lead in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||10||0.06|
|Abundance in Sun||10||0.07|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1400||100|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||10000||1000|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.03||0.00090|
|Abundance in Humans||1700||50|
Crystal Structure of Lead
The solid state structure of Lead is Face Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|495.08 pm||495.08 pm||495.08 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Fm_ 3m|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||225|
|Crystal Structure||Face Centered Cubic|
Lead Atomic and Orbital Properties
Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||82|
|Number of Protons||82|
|Number of Neutrons||125|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2|
|Valence Electrons||6s2 6p2|
|Main Oxidation States||2, 4|
|Oxidation States||-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3P0|
Bohr Atomic Model of Lead - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lead - neutral Lead atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Lead
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Lead atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The portion of Lead configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2 6p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lead
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lead atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Lead
Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, while it's covalent radius is 147 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
154 pm (1.54 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
180 pm (1.8 Å)
|Atomic Volume||18.27 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||147 pm (1.47 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||202 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.171|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.00003|
Atomic Spectrum of Lead
Lead Chemical Properties: Lead Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Lead is 35.1 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Lead
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lead
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Lead Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Lead Physical Properties
|Density||11.34 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.66 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||18.27 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||5.6 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||46 GPa|
Hardness of Lead - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||1.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||38.3 MPa|
Lead Electrical Properties
Lead is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofLead
|Electrical Conductivity||4800000 S/m|
|Resistivity||2.1e-7 m Ω|
Lead Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||35 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000289 /K|
Lead Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-1.5e-9 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-3.11e-10 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-0.000017|
Optical Properties of Lead
Acoustic Properties of Lead
|Speed of Sound||1260 m/s|
Lead Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lead
|Melting Point||600.61 K (327.46°C, 621.4280000000001 °F)|
|Boiling Point||2022 K (1748.85°C, 3179.93 °F)|
Enthalpies of Lead
|Heat of Fusion||4.77 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||178 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Lead Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lead
Lead has 38 isotopes, with between 178 and 215 nucleons. Lead has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Lead - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|