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Pb Lead
Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements

82
Pb
Lead
Element 82 of Periodic table is Lead with atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.2. Lead, symbol Pb, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and SlateGray color. Lead is a Post Transition Metal element. It is part of group 14 (carbon family). Know everything about Lead Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
82 Pb - Lead | SchoolMyKids

Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy Post Transition Metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.

It belongs to group 14 of the periodic table having trivial name tetrels, crystallogens. It got its trivial name from tetrels from Greek tetra (four, IV).

Lead Facts

Read key information and facts about element Lead

NameLead
Atomic Number82
Atomic SymbolPb
Atomic Weight207.2
PhaseSolid
ColorSlateGray
Appearancemetallic gray
ClassificationPost Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Table14
Group Namecarbon family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 6
Block in Periodic Tablep -block
Electronic Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Melting Point600.61 K
Boiling Point2022 K
CAS NumberCAS7439-92-1
123456789101112131415161718
1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

How to Locate Lead on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 82 to find Lead on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lead on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Lead History

The element Lead was discovered by Africans in year 7000 BCE . Lead was first isolated by Abydos, Egypt in 3800 BCE. Lead derived its name from English word (plumbum in Latin).

It is believed that lead smelting began at least 9,000 years ago, and the oldest known artifact of lead is a statuette found at the temple of Osiris on the site of Abydos dated circa 3800 BCE.

Lead Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lead in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

 ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe100.06
Abundance in Sun100.07
Abundance in Meteorites1400100
Abundance in Earth's Crust100001000
Abundance in Oceans0.030.00090
Abundance in Humans170050

Crystal Structure of Lead

The solid state structure of Lead is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

abc
495.08 pm495.08 pm495.08 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alphabetagamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group NameFm_ 3m 82 Pb Lead - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Oxidation StatesSpace Group Number225
Crystal StructureFace Centered Cubic

Lead Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number82
Number of Electrons (with no charge)82
Number of Protons82
Mass Number207
Number of Neutrons125
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4
Electron Configuration[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Valence Electrons6s2 6p2
Valence (Valency)4
Main Oxidation States2, 4
Oxidation States-4, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3P0

Bohr Atomic Model of Lead - Electrons per energy level

82 Pb Lead - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
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Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lead - neutral Lead atom

Abbreviated electronic configuration of Lead

The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Lead atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The portion of Lead configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2 6p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lead

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lead atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.

  • As per the Aufbau principle the electrons will occupy the orbitals having lower energies before occupying higher energy orbitals. According to this principle, electrons are filled in the following order: 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d, 7p…
  • The Pauli exclusion principle states that a maximum of two electrons, each having opposite spins, can fit in an orbital.
  • Hund's rule states that every orbital in a given subshell is singly occupied by electrons before a second electron is filled in an orbital.
  • Electron configuration of Lead
    Atomic Structure of Lead

    Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, while it's covalent radius is 147 pm.

    Atomic Radius Calculated

    154 pm (1.54 Å)

    Atomic Radius Empirical

    180 pm (1.8 Å)

    Atomic Volume18.27 cm3/mol
    Covalent Radius147 pm (1.47 Å)
    Van der Waals Radius202 pm
    Neutron Cross Section0.171
    Neutron Mass Absorption 0.00003

    Atomic Spectrum of Lead

    Atomic Spectrum of Lead | SchoolMyKids

    Lead Chemical Properties: Lead Ionization Energies and electron affinity

    The electron affinity of Lead is 35.1 kJ/mol.

    Valence4
    Electronegativity2.33
    ElectronAffinity35.1 kJ/mol

    Ionization Energy of Lead

    Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lead

    Ionization energy numberEnthalpy - kJ/mol
    1st715.6
    2nd1450.5
    3rd3081.5
    4th4083
    5th6640

    Lead Physical Properties

    Refer to below table for Lead Physical Properties

    Density11.34 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $10.66 g/cm3)
    Molar Volume18.27 cm3/mol

    Elastic Properties

    Young Modulus16
    Shear Modulus5.6 GPa
    Bulk Modulus 46 GPa
    Poisson Ratio0.44

    Hardness of Lead - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

    Mohs Hardness1.5 MPa
    Vickers Hardness-
    Brinell Hardness38.3 MPa

    Lead Electrical Properties

    Lead is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofLead

    Electrical Conductivity4800000 S/m
    Resistivity2.1e-7 m Ω
    Superconducting Point7.2

    Lead Heat and Conduction Properties

    Thermal Conductivity35 W/(m K)
    Thermal Expansion0.0000289 /K

    Lead Magnetic Properties

    Magnetic TypeDiamagnetic
    Curie Point-
    Mass Magnetic Susceptibility-1.5e-9 m3/kg
    Molar Magnetic Susceptibility-3.11e-10 m3/mol
    Volume Magnetic Susceptibility-0.000017

    Optical Properties of Lead

    Refractive Index-

    Acoustic Properties of Lead

    Speed of Sound1260 m/s

    Lead Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

    Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lead

    Melting Point600.61 K (327.46°C, 621.4280000000001 °F)
    Boiling Point2022 K (1748.85°C, 3179.93 °F)
    Critical Temperature-
    Superconducting Point7.2

    Enthalpies of Lead

    Heat of Fusion4.77 kJ/mol
    Heat of Vaporization178 kJ/mol
    Heat of Combustion-

    Lead Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lead

    Lead has 38 isotopes, with between 178 and 215 nucleons. Lead has 4 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

    Isotopes of Lead - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.

    IsotopeZNIsotope Mass% AbundanceT halfDecay Mode
    178Pb8296178Synthetic
    179Pb8297179Synthetic
    180Pb8298180Synthetic
    181Pb8299181Synthetic
    182Pb82100182Synthetic
    183Pb82101183Synthetic
    184Pb82102184Synthetic
    185Pb82103185Synthetic
    186Pb82104186Synthetic
    187Pb82105187Synthetic
    188Pb82106188Synthetic
    189Pb82107189Synthetic
    190Pb82108190Synthetic
    191Pb82109191Synthetic
    192Pb82110192Synthetic
    193Pb82111193Synthetic
    194Pb82112194Synthetic
    195Pb82113195Synthetic
    196Pb82114196Synthetic
    197Pb82115197Synthetic
    198Pb82116198Synthetic
    199Pb82117199Synthetic
    200Pb82118200Synthetic
    201Pb82119201Synthetic
    202Pb82120202Synthetic
    203Pb82121203Synthetic
    204Pb821222041.4%StableN/A
    205Pb82123205Synthetic
    206Pb8212420624.1%StableN/A
    207Pb8212520722.1%Stable
    208Pb8212620852.4%StableN/A
    209Pb82127209Synthetic
    210Pb82128210Synthetic
    211Pb82129211Synthetic
    212Pb82130212Synthetic
    213Pb82131213Synthetic
    214Pb82132214Synthetic
    215Pb82133215Synthetic