Zn Zinc – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

30
Zn
Zinc

Zinc

Element 30 of Periodic table is Zinc with atomic number 30, atomic weight 65.409. Zinc, symbol Zn, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Zinc is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Zinc is volatile metals. Know everything about Zinc Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

30 Zn - Zinc | SchoolMyKids

Zinc, in commerce also spelter, is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element of group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium:its ion is of similar size and its only common oxidation state is +2.

How to Locate Zinc on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 30 to find Zinc on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Zinc on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Zinc History

The element Zinc was discovered by India in year 1500 in Germany . Zinc derived its name from the German word Zink

Zinc Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Zinc in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 3e-07
Abundance in Sun 2e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.00018
Abundance in Earth's Crust 7.8e-05
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 3.3e-05

Crystal Structure of Zinc

The solid state structure of Zinc is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
266.49 266.49 494.68 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 30 Zn Zinc - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Zinc Atomic and Orbital Properties

Zinc atoms have 30 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 30
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 30
Number of Protons 30
Mass Number 65
Number of Neutrons 35
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d10 4s2
Oxidation State -2
1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Zinc - Electrons per energy level

30 Zn Zinc - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Zinc - neutral Zinc atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Zinc atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2. The portion of Zinc configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Zinc

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Zinc atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2

Atomic Structure of Zinc

Zinc atomic radius is 142 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.

Atomic Radius

142 pm (1.42 Å)

Atomic Volume 9.16092436975 cm3
Covalent Radius 131 pm (1.31 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 139 pm
Neutron Cross Section 1.1 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Zinc

Atomic Spectrum of Zinc | SchoolMyKids

Zinc Chemical Properties: Zinc Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Zinc is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.65
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Zinc

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Zinc

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 906.4
2 1733.3
3 3833
4 5731
5 7970
6 1.04×104
7 1.29×104
8 1.68×104
9 1.96×104
10 2.3×104
11 2.64×104
12 29990
13 40490
14 4.38×104
15 4.73×104
16 5.23×104
17 5.59×104
18 5.97×104
19 6.73×104
20 7.12×104
21 1.791×105

Zinc Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Zinc Physical Properties

Density 7.14 g/cm3
Molar Volume 9.16092436975 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 108 GPa
Shear Modulus 43 GPa
Bulk Modulus 70 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.25

Hardness of Zinc - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 412 MPa

Zinc Electrical Properties

Zinc is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Zinc

Electrical Conductivity 1.7×107 S/m
Resistivity 5.9×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.85

Zinc Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 120 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000302 K-1

Zinc Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.21×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.45×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.58e-05

Optical Properties of Zinc

Refractive Index 1.00205

Acoustic Properties of Zinc

Speed of Sound 3.7×103 m/s

Zinc Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Zinc

Melting Point 692.68 K (419.53 °C)
Boiling Point 1180 K (907 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.85

Enthalpies of Zinc

Heat of Fusion 7.35 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 119 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Zinc Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Zinc

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Zinc has 5 stable isotope - 64Zn, 66Zn, 67Zn, 68Zn, 70Zn.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
54Zn  
55Zn  
56Zn  
57Zn  
58Zn  
59Zn  
60Zn  
61Zn  
62Zn  
63Zn  
64Zn   48.63% Stable N/A
65Zn  
66Zn   27.9% Stable N/A
67Zn   4.1% Stable N/A
68Zn   18.75% Stable N/A
69Zn  
70Zn   0.62% Stable N/A
71Zn  
72Zn  
73Zn  
74Zn  
75Zn  
76Zn  
77Zn  
78Zn  
79Zn  
80Zn  
81Zn  
82Zn  
83Zn  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-66-6
RTECS Number RTECSZG8600000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1436
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 460 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-66-6
CID Number CID23994
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSZG8600000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide