Samarium is a chemical element with symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air. Being a typical member of the lanthanide series, samarium usually assumes the oxidation state +3.
Read key information and facts about element Samarium
|Group in Periodic Table||N/A|
|Period in Periodic Table||6|
|Block in Periodic Table||f-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f6 6s2|
|Melting Point||1072 °C|
|Boiling Point||1803 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 62 to find Samarium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Samarium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Samarium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1879 in France . Samarium derived its name from Samarskite, the name of the mineral from which it was first isolated
The table below shows the abundance of Samarium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||5×10-7%|
|Abundance in Sun||1×10-7%|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1.7e-07|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||6e-06|
|Abundance in Oceans||4.5×10-11%|
|Abundance in Humans||N/A|
The solid state structure of Samarium is Simple Trigonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||R_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||166|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Trigonal|
Samarium atoms have 62 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 7F0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||62|
|Number of Protons||62|
|Number of Neutrons||88|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 18, 24, 8, 2]|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f6 6s2|
|Valence Electrons||4f6 6s2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||7F0|
Shell Structure of Samarium - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Samarium atom is [Xe] 4f6 6s2. The portion of Samarium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f6 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Samarium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f6 6s2
Samarium atomic radius is 238 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.
238 pm (2.38 Å)
|Atomic Volume||20.4487964096 cm3|
|Van der Waals Radius||N/A|
|Neutron Cross Section||5.9×103 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Samarium is 50 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Samarium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Samarium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||20.4487964096 cm3|
|Young Modulus||50 GPa|
|Shear Modulus||20 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||38 GPa|
|Vickers Hardness||412 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||441 MPa|
Samarium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Samarium
|Electrical Conductivity||1.1×106 S/m|
|Resistivity||9.4×10-7 m Ω|
|Thermal Conductivity||13 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000127 K-1|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||1.11×10-7|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||1.669×10-8|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.00081618|
|Speed of Sound||2130 m/s|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Samarium
|Melting Point||1345 K (1072 °C)|
|Boiling Point||2076 K (1803 °C)|
|Heat of Fusion||8.6 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||175 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Samarium has 5 stable isotope - 144Sm, 149Sm, 150Sm, 152Sm, 154Sm.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||4.1|
|NFPA Fire Rating||1|
|NFPA Health Rating||1|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||1|
|Autoignition Point||150 °C|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7440-19-9|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|