Ru Ruthenium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

44
Ru
Ruthenium

Ruthenium

Element 44 of Periodic table is Ruthenium with atomic number 44, atomic weight 101.07. Ruthenium, symbol Ru, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Ruthenium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Ruthenium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

44 Ru - Ruthenium | SchoolMyKids

Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44. It is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Like the other metals of the platinum group, ruthenium is inert to most other chemicals.

How to Locate Ruthenium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 44 to find Ruthenium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Ruthenium on periodic table look for cross section of group 8 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Ruthenium History

The element Ruthenium was discovered by Karl Ernst Claus in year 1844 in Russia . Ruthenium derived its name from Ruthenia, the New Latin name for Russia

Ruthenium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Ruthenium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 4×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 5×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 8.1e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 9.9×10-8%
Abundance in Oceans 7×10-11%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Ruthenium

The solid state structure of Ruthenium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
270.59 270.59 428.15 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 44 Ru Ruthenium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Ruthenium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Ruthenium atoms have 44 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 15, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5F5.

Atomic Number 44
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 44
Number of Protons 44
Mass Number 101
Number of Neutrons 57
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 15, 1]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d7 5s1
Valence Electrons 4d7 5s1
Oxidation State -4;-2
1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5F5

Shell Structure of Ruthenium - Electrons per energy level

44 Ru Ruthenium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 7
5 O 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Ruthenium - neutral Ruthenium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Ruthenium atom is [Kr] 4d7 5s1. The portion of Ruthenium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d7 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Ruthenium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Ruthenium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d7 5s1

Atomic Structure of Ruthenium

Ruthenium atomic radius is 178 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.

Atomic Radius

178 pm (1.78 Å)

Atomic Volume 8.17057396928 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 pm (1.26 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 2.6 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Ruthenium

Atomic Spectrum of Ruthenium | SchoolMyKids

Ruthenium Chemical Properties: Ruthenium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Ruthenium is 101.3 kJ/mol

Valence 6
Electronegativity 2.2
ElectronAffinity 101.3 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Ruthenium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Ruthenium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 710.2
2 1620
3 2747

Ruthenium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Ruthenium Physical Properties

Density 12.37 g/cm3
Molar Volume 8.17057396928 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 447 GPa
Shear Modulus 173 GPa
Bulk Modulus 220 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.3

Hardness of Ruthenium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 2160 MPa

Ruthenium Electrical Properties

Ruthenium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Ruthenium

Electrical Conductivity 1.4×107 S/m
Resistivity 7.1×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.49

Ruthenium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 120 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 6.4×10-6 K-1

Ruthenium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 5.42×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 5.48×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 6.7e-05

Optical Properties of Ruthenium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Ruthenium

Speed of Sound 5970 m/s

Ruthenium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Ruthenium

Melting Point 2607 K (2334 °C)
Boiling Point 4423 K (4150 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.49

Enthalpies of Ruthenium

Heat of Fusion 25.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 580 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Ruthenium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Ruthenium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Ruthenium has 7 stable isotope - 100Ru, 101Ru, 102Ru, 104Ru, 96Ru, 98Ru, 99Ru.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
87Ru  
88Ru  
89Ru  
90Ru  
91Ru  
92Ru  
93Ru  
94Ru  
95Ru  
96Ru   5.54% Stable N/A
97Ru  
98Ru   1.87% Stable N/A
99Ru   12.76% Stable N/A
100Ru   12.6% Stable N/A
101Ru   17.06% Stable N/A
102Ru   31.55% Stable N/A
103Ru  
104Ru   18.62% Stable N/A
105Ru  
106Ru  
107Ru  
108Ru  
109Ru  
110Ru  
111Ru  
112Ru  
113Ru  
114Ru  
115Ru  
116Ru  
117Ru  
118Ru  
119Ru  
120Ru  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-18-8
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-18-8
CID Number CID23950
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide