Na Sodium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

11
Na
Sodium

Sodium

Element 11 of Periodic table is Sodium with atomic number 11, atomic weight 22.98977. Sodium, symbol Na, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Sodium is a alkali metal element. Trivial name of Sodium is alkali metals*. Know everything about Sodium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

11 Na - Sodium | SchoolMyKids

Sodium /ˈsoʊdiəm/ is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Ancient Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and shares with the other six elements in that column that it has a single electron in its outer shell, which it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom - a cation.

How to Locate Sodium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 11 to find Sodium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Sodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Sodium History

The element Sodium was discovered by Humphry Davy in year 1807 in United Kingdom . Sodium derived its name from the English word soda (natrium in Latin)

Sodium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Sodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 2e-05
Abundance in Sun 4e-05
Abundance in Meteorites 0.0055
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.023
Abundance in Oceans 0.011
Abundance in Humans 0.0014

Crystal Structure of Sodium

The solid state structure of Sodium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
429.06 429.06 429.06 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m 11 Na Sodium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Sodium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number 11
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 11
Number of Protons 11
Mass Number 23
Number of Neutrons 12
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 1]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s1
Valence Electrons 3s1
Oxidation State -1
1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Sodium - Electrons per energy level

11 Na Sodium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Sodium - neutral Sodium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Sodium atom is [Ne] 3s1. The portion of Sodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Sodium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Sodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1

Atomic Structure of Sodium

Sodium atomic radius is 190 pm, while it's covalent radius is 154 pm.

Atomic Radius

190 pm (1.9 Å)

Atomic Volume 23.7497623967 cm3
Covalent Radius 154 pm (1.54 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 227 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.53 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Sodium

Atomic Spectrum of Sodium | SchoolMyKids

Sodium Chemical Properties: Sodium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Sodium is 52.8 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 0.93
ElectronAffinity 52.8 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Sodium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Sodium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 495.8
2 4562
3 6910.3
4 9543
5 13354
6 16613
7 20117
8 25496
9 28932
10 141362

Sodium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Sodium Physical Properties

Density 0.968 g/cm3
Molar Volume 23.7497623967 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 10 GPa
Shear Modulus 3.3 GPa
Bulk Modulus 6.3 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Sodium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 0.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 0.69 MPa

Sodium Electrical Properties

Sodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Sodium

Electrical Conductivity 2.1×107 S/m
Resistivity 4.7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Sodium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 140 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.000071 K-1

Sodium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 8.8×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 2×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 8.5×10-6

Optical Properties of Sodium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Sodium

Speed of Sound 3.2×103 m/s

Sodium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Sodium

Melting Point 370.87 K (97.72 °C)
Boiling Point 1156 K (883 °C)
Critical Temperature 2573 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Sodium

Heat of Fusion 2.6 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 97.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Sodium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Sodium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Sodium has 1 stable isotope - 23Na.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
18Na  
19Na  
20Na  
21Na  
22Na  
23Na   100% Stable N/A
24Na  
25Na  
26Na  
27Na  
28Na  
29Na  
30Na  
31Na  
32Na  
33Na  
34Na  
35Na  
36Na  
37Na  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-23-5
RTECS Number RTECSVY0686000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1428
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 3
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point 115 °C
Flashpoint 4 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-23-5
CID Number CID5360545
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVY0686000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide