Sodium /ˈsoʊdiəm/ is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Ancient Greek Νάτριο) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silver-white, highly reactive metal. In the Periodic table it is in column 1 (alkali metals), and shares with the other six elements in that column that it has a single electron in its outer shell, which it readily donates, creating a positively charged atom - a cation.
Read key information and facts about element Sodium
|Group in Periodic Table||1|
|Group Name||lithium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||3|
|Block in Periodic Table||s-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ne] 3s1|
|Melting Point||97.72 °C|
|Boiling Point||883 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 8, 1]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 11 to find Sodium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Sodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.
The element Sodium was discovered by Humphry Davy in year 1807 in United Kingdom . Sodium derived its name from the English word soda (natrium in Latin)
The table below shows the abundance of Sodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2e-05|
|Abundance in Sun||4e-05|
|Abundance in Meteorites||0.0055|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||0.023|
|Abundance in Oceans||0.011|
|Abundance in Humans||0.0014|
The solid state structure of Sodium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Sodium atoms have 11 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||11|
|Number of Protons||11|
|Number of Neutrons||12|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 1]|
|Electron Configuration||[Ne] 3s1|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||2S1/2|
Shell Structure of Sodium - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Sodium atom is [Ne] 3s1. The portion of Sodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Sodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
Sodium atomic radius is 190 pm, while it's covalent radius is 154 pm.
190 pm (1.9 Å)
|Atomic Volume||23.7497623967 cm3|
|Covalent Radius||154 pm (1.54 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||227 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||0.53 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Sodium is 52.8 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Sodium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Sodium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||23.7497623967 cm3|
|Young Modulus||10 GPa|
|Shear Modulus||3.3 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||6.3 GPa|
|Mohs Hardness||0.5 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||0.69 MPa|
Sodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Sodium
|Electrical Conductivity||2.1×107 S/m|
|Resistivity||4.7×10-8 m Ω|
|Thermal Conductivity||140 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.000071 K-1|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||8.8×10-9|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||2×10-10|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||8.5×10-6|
|Speed of Sound||3.2×103 m/s|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Sodium
|Melting Point||370.87 K (97.72 °C)|
|Boiling Point||1156 K (883 °C)|
|Critical Temperature||2573 K|
|Heat of Fusion||2.6 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||97.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Sodium has 1 stable isotope - 23Na.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||4.3|
|NFPA Fire Rating||3|
|NFPA Hazards||Water Reactive|
|NFPA Health Rating||3|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||2|
|Autoignition Point||115 °C|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7440-23-5|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|