Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.
Read key information and facts about element Mercury
|Group in Periodic Table||12|
|Group Name||zinc family|
|Period in Periodic Table||6|
|Block in Periodic Table||d-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2|
|Melting Point||-38.83 °C|
|Boiling Point||356.73 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 80 to find Mercury on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Mercury on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Mercury was discovered by unknown in year 1500 BC in unknown place . Mercury derived its name from the New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver')
The table below shows the abundance of Mercury in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||1×10-7%|
|Abundance in Sun||2×10-6%|
|Abundance in Meteorites||2.5e-07|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||6.7×10-6%|
|Abundance in Oceans||5×10-9%|
|Abundance in Humans||N/A|
The solid state structure of Mercury is Simple Trigonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||R_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||166|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Trigonal|
Mercury atoms have 80 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||80|
|Number of Protons||80|
|Number of Neutrons||121|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2]|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2|
|Valence Electrons||5d10 6s2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||1S0|
Shell Structure of Mercury - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Mercury atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The portion of Mercury configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Mercury atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2
Mercury atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 149 pm.
171 pm (1.71 Å)
|Atomic Volume||14.8211910743 cm3|
|Covalent Radius||149 pm (1.49 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||155 pm|
|Neutron Cross Section||374 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Mercury is 0 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Mercury
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Mercury Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||14.8211910743 cm3|
|Bulk Modulus||25 GPa|
Mercury is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Mercury
|Electrical Conductivity||1×106 S/m|
|Resistivity||9.6×10-7 m Ω|
|Thermal Conductivity||8.3 W/(m K)|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.1×10-9|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||-4.21×10-10|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||-2.84e-05|
|Speed of Sound||1407 m/s|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Mercury
|Melting Point||234.32 K (-38.83 °C)|
|Boiling Point||629.88 K (356.73 °C)|
|Critical Temperature||1750 K|
|Heat of Fusion||2.29 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||59.2 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Mercury has 7 stable isotope - 196Hg, 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg, 204Hg.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||8|
|NFPA Fire Rating||0|
|NFPA Health Rating||3|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||0|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7439-97-6|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|