Hg Mercury – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

80
Hg
Mercury

Mercury

Element 80 of Periodic table is Mercury with atomic number 80, atomic weight 200.59. Mercury, symbol Hg, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Silver color. Mercury is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Mercury is volatile metals. Know everything about Mercury Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

80 Hg - Mercury | SchoolMyKids

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum (/haɪˈdrɑːrdʒərəm/). A heavy, silvery d-block element, mercury is the only metallic element that is liquid at standard conditions for temperature and pressure; the only other element that is liquid under these conditions is bromine, though metals such as caesium, gallium, and rubidium melt just above room temperature.

How to Locate Mercury on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 80 to find Mercury on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Mercury on periodic table look for cross section of group 12 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Mercury History

The element Mercury was discovered by unknown in year 1500 BC in unknown place . Mercury derived its name from the New Latin name mercurius, named after the Roman god (Hg from former name hydrargyrum, from Greek hydr-, 'water', and argyros, 'silver')

Mercury Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Mercury in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.5e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 6.7×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Mercury

The solid state structure of Mercury is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
300.5 300.5 300.5 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
1.23081 1.23081 1.23081

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name R_ 3m 80 Hg Mercury - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 166
Crystal Structure Simple Trigonal

Mercury Atomic and Orbital Properties

Mercury atoms have 80 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 80
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 80
Number of Protons 80
Mass Number 201
Number of Neutrons 121
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2
Valence Electrons 5d10 6s2
Oxidation State -2
1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Mercury - Electrons per energy level

80 Hg Mercury - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 10
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Mercury - neutral Mercury atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Mercury atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2. The portion of Mercury configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Mercury

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Mercury atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2

Atomic Structure of Mercury

Mercury atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 149 pm.

Atomic Radius

171 pm (1.71 Å)

Atomic Volume 14.8211910743 cm3
Covalent Radius 149 pm (1.49 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 155 pm
Neutron Cross Section 374 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Mercury

Atomic Spectrum of Mercury | SchoolMyKids

Mercury Chemical Properties: Mercury Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Mercury is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 2
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Mercury

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Mercury

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1007.1
2 1810
3 3.3×103

Mercury Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Mercury Physical Properties

Density 13.534 g/cm3
Molar Volume 14.8211910743 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 25 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Mercury - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Mercury Electrical Properties

Mercury is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Mercury

Electrical Conductivity 1×106 S/m
Resistivity 9.6×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 4.154

Mercury Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 8.3 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Mercury Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.1×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -4.21×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.84e-05

Optical Properties of Mercury

Refractive Index 1.000933

Acoustic Properties of Mercury

Speed of Sound 1407 m/s

Mercury Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Mercury

Melting Point 234.32 K (-38.83 °C)
Boiling Point 629.88 K (356.73 °C)
Critical Temperature 1750 K
Superconducting Point 4.154

Enthalpies of Mercury

Heat of Fusion 2.29 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 59.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Mercury Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Mercury

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Mercury has 7 stable isotope - 196Hg, 198Hg, 199Hg, 200Hg, 201Hg, 202Hg, 204Hg.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
171Hg  
172Hg  
173Hg  
174Hg  
175Hg  
176Hg  
177Hg  
178Hg  
179Hg  
180Hg  
181Hg  
182Hg  
183Hg  
184Hg  
185Hg  
186Hg  
187Hg  
188Hg  
189Hg  
190Hg  
191Hg  
192Hg  
193Hg  
194Hg  
195Hg  
196Hg   0.15% Stable N/A
197Hg  
198Hg   9.97% Stable N/A
199Hg   16.87% Stable N/A
200Hg   23.1% Stable N/A
201Hg   13.18% Stable N/A
202Hg   29.86% Stable N/A
203Hg  
204Hg   6.87% Stable N/A
205Hg  
206Hg  
207Hg  
208Hg  
209Hg  
210Hg  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-97-6
RTECS Number RTECSOV4550000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 2809
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-97-6
CID Number CID23931
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOV4550000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide