Fe Iron – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

26
Fe
Iron

Iron

Element 26 of Periodic table is Iron with atomic number 26, atomic weight 55.845. Iron, symbol Fe, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Iron is a transition metal element. Know everything about Iron Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

26 Fe - Iron | SchoolMyKids

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from Latin:ferrum) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is by mass the most common element on Earth, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core.

How to Locate Iron on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 26 to find Iron on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Iron on periodic table look for cross section of group 8 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Iron History

The element Iron was discovered by unknown in year 2000 BC in unknown place . Iron derived its name from English word (ferrum in Latin)

Iron Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Iron in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.0011
Abundance in Sun 0.001
Abundance in Meteorites 0.22
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.063
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 6e-05

Crystal Structure of Iron

The solid state structure of Iron is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
286.65 286.65 286.65 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m 26 Fe Iron - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Iron Atomic and Orbital Properties

Iron atoms have 26 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 14, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5D4.

Atomic Number 26
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 26
Number of Protons 26
Mass Number 56
Number of Neutrons 30
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 14, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d6 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d6 4s2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5;6;7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5D4

Shell Structure of Iron - Electrons per energy level

26 Fe Iron - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 6
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Iron - neutral Iron atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Iron atom is [Ar] 3d6 4s2. The portion of Iron configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d6 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Iron

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Iron atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d6 4s2

Atomic Structure of Iron

Iron atomic radius is 156 pm, while it's covalent radius is 125 pm.

Atomic Radius

156 pm (1.56 Å)

Atomic Volume 7.09232918466 cm3
Covalent Radius 125 pm (1.25 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 2.56 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Iron

Atomic Spectrum of Iron | SchoolMyKids

Iron Chemical Properties: Iron Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Iron is 15.7 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.83
ElectronAffinity 15.7 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Iron

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Iron

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 762.5
2 1561.9
3 2957
4 5290
5 7240
6 9560
7 12060
8 14580
9 22540
10 25290
11 2.8×104
12 31920
13 34830
14 37840
15 4.41×104
16 47206
17 1.222×105
18 1.31×105
19 1.405×105
20 1.526×105
21 1.63×105

Iron Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Iron Physical Properties

Density 7.874 g/cm3
Molar Volume 7.09232918466 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 211 GPa
Shear Modulus 82 GPa
Bulk Modulus 170 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.29

Hardness of Iron - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 4 MPa
Vickers Hardness 608 MPa
Brinell Hardness 490 MPa

Iron Electrical Properties

Iron is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Iron

Electrical Conductivity 1×107 S/m
Resistivity 9.7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Iron Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 80 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000118 K-1

Iron Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Ferromagnetic
Curie Point 1043 K
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Optical Properties of Iron

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Iron

Speed of Sound 4910 m/s

Iron Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Iron

Melting Point 1811 K (1538 °C)
Boiling Point 3134 K (2861 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Iron

Heat of Fusion 13.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 347 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Iron Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Iron

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Iron has 4 stable isotope - 54Fe, 56Fe, 57Fe, 58Fe.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
45Fe  
46Fe  
47Fe  
48Fe  
49Fe  
50Fe  
51Fe  
52Fe  
53Fe  
54Fe   5.845% Stable N/A
55Fe  
56Fe   91.754% Stable N/A
57Fe   2.119% Stable N/A
58Fe   0.282% Stable N/A
59Fe  
60Fe  
61Fe  
62Fe  
63Fe  
64Fe  
65Fe  
66Fe  
67Fe  
68Fe  
69Fe  
70Fe  
71Fe  
72Fe  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-89-6
RTECS Number RTECSNO4565500
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 100 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-89-6
CID Number CID23925
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSNO4565500

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide