;

Periodic Table Element Comparison: Compare Elements - Thulium vs Gadolinium

Compare Thulium and Gadolinium

Compare Thulium and Gadolinium on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts. Compare elements on more than 90 properties. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. These similarities and dissimilarities should be known while we study periodic table elements. You can study the detailed comparison between Thulium vs Gadolinium with most reliable information about their properties, attributes, facts, uses etc. You can compare Tm vs Gd on more than 90 properties like electronegativity , oxidation state, atomic shells, orbital structure, Electronaffinity, physical states, electrical conductivity and many more.

Facts

Thulium
69
Tm
168.93421
Solid
Silver
lanthanide
N/A
 
6
f
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
1545 °C
1950 °C
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
CAS7440-30-4
Neighborhood Elements of Thulium
Gadolinium
64
Gd
157.25
Solid
Silver
lanthanide
N/A
 
6
f
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
1313 °C
3250 °C
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
CAS7440-54-2
Neighborhood Elements of Gadolinium

History

History
The element Thulium was discovered by Per Teodor Cleve in year 1879 in Sweden. Thulium derived its name from from Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia
The element Gadolinium was discovered by Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac in year 1880 in Switzerland. Gadolinium derived its name derived its name from from Johan Gadolin, chemist, physicist and mineralogist

Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
1×10-8%
2×10-8%
2.9×10-6%
4.5e-07
2×10-11%
N/A
2×10-7%
2×10-7%
2.3e-07
5.2e-06
7×10-11%
N/A

Crystal Structure and Atomic Structure

222 pm
18.124043557558 cm3
N/A
N/A
105
thulium Spectrum
353.75, 353.75, 555.46 pm
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
P63/mmc
194

Simple Hexagonal

thulium Crystal Structure
233 pm
19.902543981774 cm3
N/A
N/A
4.9×104
gadolinium Spectrum
363.6, 363.6, 578.26 pm
π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
P63/mmc
194

Simple Hexagonal

gadolinium Crystal Structure

Atomic and Orbital Properties

Atomic Number
Number of Electrons (with no charge)
Number of Protons
Mass Number
Number of Neutrons
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)
Electron Configuration
Valence Electrons
Oxidation State
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)
Shell structure
69
69
69
168.93421
99.93421
2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2
[Xe] 4f13 6s2
4f13 6s2
 2;3
2F7/2
thulium Shells
64
64
64
157.25
93.25
2, 8, 18, 25, 9, 2
[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
4f7 5d1 6s2
 1;2;3
9D2
gadolinium Shells

Isotopes - Nuclear Properties

Isotopes
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
169Tm.
Naturally occurring stable isotopes:
154Gd, 155Gd, 156Gd, 157Gd, 158Gd, 160Gd.

Chemical Properties: Ionization Energies and electron affinity

3
1.25
50 kJ/mol
596.7, 1160, 2285, 4120 kJ/mol
3
1.2
50 kJ/mol
593.4, 1170, 1990, 4250 kJ/mol

Physical Properties

9.321 g/cm3
18.124043557558

 

74 GPa
31 GPa
45 GPa
0.21


 

N/A
520 MPa
471 MPa

 

1.4×106 S/m
7×10-7 m Ω
N/A

 

17 W/(m K)
0.0000133 K-1

 

Paramagnetic
25 K
1.99×10-6
3.36179×10-7
0.0185488

 

N/A

 

N/A
7.901 g/cm3
19.902543981774

 

55 GPa
22 GPa
38 GPa
0.26


 

N/A
570 MPa
N/A

 

7.7×105 S/m
1.3×10-6 m Ω
1.083

 

11 W/(m K)
9.4×10-6 K-1

 

Ferromagnetic
292 K
N/A
N/A
N/A

 

N/A

 

2680 m/s

Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

1545 °C
1950 °C
N/A
N/A

 

16.8 kJ/mol
250 kJ/mol
N/A
1313 °C
3250 °C
N/A
1.083

 

10 kJ/mol
305 kJ/mol
N/A

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS7440-30-4
N/A
4.1
3089
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

 

N/A
N/A
CAS7440-54-2
RTECSLW3850000
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A

 

N/A
N/A