Be Beryllium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

4
Be
Beryllium

Beryllium

Element 4 of Periodic table is Beryllium with atomic number 4, atomic weight 9.012182. Beryllium, symbol Be, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Beryllium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Beryllium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Beryllium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

4 Be - Beryllium | SchoolMyKids

Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is created through stellar nucleosynthesis and is a relatively rare element in the universe. It is a divalent element which occurs naturally only in combination with other elements in minerals.

How to Locate Beryllium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 4 to find Beryllium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Beryllium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Beryllium History

The element Beryllium was discovered by Louis Nicolas Vauquelin in year 1797 in France . Beryllium derived its name from beryl, a mineral

Beryllium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Beryllium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-8%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.9e-06
Abundance in Oceans 6×10-11%
Abundance in Humans 4×10-8%

Crystal Structure of Beryllium

The solid state structure of Beryllium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
228.58 228.58 358.43 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 4 Be Beryllium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Beryllium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Beryllium atoms have 4 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 4
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 4
Number of Protons 4
Mass Number 9
Number of Neutrons 5
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 2]
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2
Valence Electrons 2s2
Oxidation State 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Beryllium - Electrons per energy level

4 Be Beryllium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Beryllium - neutral Beryllium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Beryllium atom is [He] 2s2. The portion of Beryllium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Beryllium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Beryllium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2

Atomic Structure of Beryllium

Beryllium atomic radius is 112 pm, while it's covalent radius is 90 pm.

Atomic Radius

112 pm (1.12 Å)

Atomic Volume 4.87672186147 cm3
Covalent Radius 90 pm (0.9 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.0092 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Beryllium

Atomic Spectrum of Beryllium | SchoolMyKids

Beryllium Chemical Properties: Beryllium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Beryllium is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.57
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Beryllium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Beryllium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 899.5
2 1757.1
3 14848.7
4 21006.6

Beryllium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Beryllium Physical Properties

Density 1.848 g/cm3
Molar Volume 4.87672186147 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 287 GPa
Shear Modulus 132 GPa
Bulk Modulus 130 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.032

Hardness of Beryllium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 5.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1670 MPa
Brinell Hardness 600 MPa

Beryllium Electrical Properties

Beryllium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Beryllium

Electrical Conductivity 2.5×107 S/m
Resistivity 4×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.026

Beryllium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 190 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000113 K-1

Beryllium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.26×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.136×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.328e-05

Optical Properties of Beryllium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Beryllium

Speed of Sound 1.3×104 m/s

Beryllium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Beryllium

Melting Point 1560 K (1287 °C)
Boiling Point 2743 K (2470 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.026

Enthalpies of Beryllium

Heat of Fusion 7.95 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 297 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Beryllium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Beryllium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Beryllium has 1 stable isotope - 9Be.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
5Be  
6Be  
7Be  
8Be  
9Be   Stable N/A
10Be  
11Be  
12Be  
13Be  
14Be  
15Be  
16Be  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-41-7
RTECS Number RTECSDS1750000
DOT Hazard Class 6.1
DOT Numbers 1567
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-41-7
CID Number CID5460467
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSDS1750000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide