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Periodic Table Element Comparison: Compare Elements - Thorium vs Cadmium

Compare Thorium and Cadmium

Compare Thorium and Cadmium on the basis of their properties, attributes and periodic table facts. Compare elements on more than 90 properties. All the elements of similar categories show a lot of similarities and differences in their chemical, atomic, physical properties and uses. These similarities and dissimilarities should be known while we study periodic table elements. You can study the detailed comparison between Thorium vs Cadmium with most reliable information about their properties, attributes, facts, uses etc. You can compare Th vs Cd on more than 90 properties like electronegativity , oxidation state, atomic shells, orbital structure, Electronaffinity, physical states, electrical conductivity and many more.

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1
1
H
Hydrogen
1.008

Atomic #

Electronic Shell #

Symbol
Name
Atomic Weight
HGas
HgLiquid
CSolid
Metals
Metalloids
NonMetals
Alkali metals
Alkali earth metals
Lanthanoids
Transition metals
Post-transition metals
Other nonmetals
Halogens
Nobel gas
Actinoids
2
He
Helium
4.003
2
3
Li
Lithium
6.941
4
Be
Beryllium
9.012
5
B
Boron
10.811
6
C
Carbon
12.011
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
8
O
Oxygen
15.999
9
F
Fluorine
18.998
10
Ne
Neon
20.180
3
11
Na
Sodium
22.990
12
Mg
Magnesium
24.305
13
Al
Aluminium
26.982
14
Si
Silicon
28.085
15
P
Phosphorus
30.974
16
S
Sulfur
32.065
17
Cl
Chlorine
35.453
18
Ar
Argon
39.948
4
19
K
Potassium
39.098
20
Ca
Calcium
40.078
21
Sc
Scandium
44.956
22
Ti
Titanium
47.867
23
V
Vanadium
50.941
24
Cr
Chromium
51.996
25
Mn
Manganese
54.938
26
Fe
Iron
55.845
27
Co
Cobalt
58.933
28
Ni
Nickel
58.693
29
Cu
Copper
63.546
30
Zn
Zinc
65.409
31
Ga
Gallium
69.723
32
Ge
Germanium
72.640
33
As
Arsenic
74.922
34
Se
Selenium
78.960
35
Br
Bromine
79.904
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
5
37
Rb
Rubidium
85.468
38
Sr
Strontium
87.620
39
Y
Yttrium
88.906
40
Zr
Zirconium
91.224
41
Nb
Niobium
92.906
42
Mo
Molybdenum
95.940
43
Tc
Technetium
98
44
Ru
Ruthenium
101.070
45
Rh
Rhodium
102.906
46
Pd
Palladium
106.420
47
Ag
Silver
107.868
48
Cd
Cadmium
112.411
49
In
Indium
114.818
50
Sn
Tin
118.710
51
Sb
Antimony
121.760
52
Te
Tellurium
127.600
53
I
Iodine
126.904
54
Xe
Xenon
131.293
6
55
Cs
Cesium
132.905
56
Ba
Barium
137.327
57 - 71
La - Lu
Lanthanides
72
Hf
Hafnium
178.490
73
Ta
Tantalum
180.948
74
W
Tungsten
183.840
75
Re
Rhenium
186.207
76
Os
Osmium
190.230
77
Ir
Iridium
192.217
78
Pt
Platinum
195.078
79
Au
Gold
196.967
80
Hg
Mercury
200.590
81
Tl
Thallium
204.383
82
Pb
Lead
207.200
83
Bi
Bismuth
208.980
84
Po
Polonium
209
85
At
Astatine
210
86
Rn
Radon
222
7
87
Fr
Francium
223
88
Ra
Radium
226
89 - 103
Ac - Lr
Actinides
104
Rf
Rutherfordium
261
105
Db
Dubnium
262
106
Sg
Seaborgium
266
107
Bh
Bohrium
264
108
Hs
Hassium
277
109
Mt
Meitnerium
268
110
Ds
Darmstadtium
281
111
Rg
Roentgenium
272
112
Cn
Copernicium
285
113
Nh
Nihonium
284
114
Fl
Flerovium
289
115
Mc
Moscovium
288
116
Lv
Livermorium
292
117
Ts
Tennessine
294
118
Og
Oganesson
294
Lanthanides
57
La
Lanthanum
138.905
58
Ce
Cerium
140.116
59
Pr
Praseodymium
140.908
60
Nd
Neodymium
144.240
61
Pm
Promethium
145
62
Sm
Samarium
150.360
63
Eu
Europium
151.964
64
Gd
Gadolinium
157.250
65
Tb
Terbium
158.925
66
Dy
Dysprosium
162.500
67
Ho
Holmium
164.930
68
Er
Erbium
167.259
69
Tm
Thulium
168.934
70
Yb
Ytterbium
173.040
71
Lu
Lutetium
174.967
Actinides
89
Ac
Actinium
227
90
Th
Thorium
232.038
91
Pa
Protactinium
231.036
92
U
Uranium
238.029
93
Np
Neptunium
237
94
Pu
Plutonium
244
95
Am
Americium
243
96
Cm
Curium
247
97
Bk
Berkelium
247
98
Cf
Californium
251
99
Es
Einsteinium
252
100
Fm
Fermium
257
101
Md
Mendelevium
258
102
No
Nobelium
259
103
Lr
Lawrencium
262

Facts

NameThoriumCadmium
Atomic Number9048
Atomic SymbolThCd
Atomic Weight232.0381 112.411
Phase at STPSolid Solid
ColorSilver Silver
Metallic ClassificationActinide Transition Metal
Group in Periodic Tablegroup - group 12
Group Namezinc family
Period in Periodic Tableperiod 7 period 5
Block in Periodic Tablef -blockd -block
Electronic Configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2 [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 22, 8, 18, 18, 2
Melting Point2023 K594.22 K
Boiling Point5093 K1040 K
CAS NumberCAS7440-29-1 CAS7440-43-9
Neighborhood ElementsNeighborhood Elements of ThoriumNeighborhood Elements of Cadmium

History

HistoryThe element Thorium was discovered by J. Berzelius in year 1829 in Sweden. Thorium derived its name from Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder.The element Cadmium was discovered by S. L Hermann,F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff in year 1817 in Germany. Cadmium derived its name from the New Latin cadmia, from King Kadmos.
DiscoveryJ. Berzelius (1829)S. L Hermann,F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff (1817)
IsolatedD. Lely, Jr. and L. Hamburger (1914)S. L Hermann, F. Stromeyer, and J.C.H. Roloff (1817)

Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

Parts per billion (ppb) by weight / by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)

Abundance in Universe0.4 / 0.0022 / 0.02
Abundance in Sun0.3 / 0.0026 / 0.07
Abundance in Meteorites40 / 3450 / 60
Abundance in Earth's Crust6000 / 540150 / 30
Abundance in Oceans0.00004 / 0.00000110.05 / 0.0028
Abundance in Humans- / -700 / 39

Crystal Structure and Atomic Structure

Atomic Volume19.7917 cm3/mol12.995 cm3/mol
Atomic Radius180 pm161 pm
Covalent Radius- 148 pm
Van der Waals Radius- 158 pm
Atomic SpectrumAtomic Spectrum of Thorium | SchoolMyKidsAtomic Spectrum of Cadmium | SchoolMyKids
Lattice Constant508.42, 508.42, 508.42 pm297.94, 297.94, 561.86 pm
Lattice Angleπ/2, π/2, π/2π/2, π/2, 2 π/3
Space Group NameFm_ 3m P63/mmc
Space Group Number225 194
Crystal Structure

Face Centered Cubic

90 Th Thorium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids

Simple Hexagonal

48 Cd Cadmium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids

Atomic and Orbital Properties

Atomic Number9048
Number of Electrons (with no charge)9048
Number of Protons9048
Mass Number232.0381112.411
Number of Neutrons14264
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 22, 8, 18, 18, 2
Electron Configuration[Rn] 6d2 7s2 [Kr] 4d10 5s2
Valence Electrons6d2 7s2 4d10 5s2
Oxidation State42
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)3F2 1S0
Shell structure90 Th Thorium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids48 Cd Cadmium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids

Isotopes and Nuclear Properties

Thorium has 1 stable naturally occuring isotopes while Cadmium has 6 stable naturally occuring isotopes.

Known Isotopes209Th, 210Th, 211Th, 212Th, 213Th, 214Th, 215Th, 216Th, 217Th, 218Th, 219Th, 220Th, 221Th, 222Th, 223Th, 224Th, 225Th, 226Th, 227Th, 228Th, 229Th, 230Th, 231Th, 232Th, 233Th, 234Th, 235Th, 236Th, 237Th, 238Th95Cd, 96Cd, 97Cd, 98Cd, 99Cd, 100Cd, 101Cd, 102Cd, 103Cd, 104Cd, 105Cd, 106Cd, 107Cd, 108Cd, 109Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 113Cd, 114Cd, 115Cd, 116Cd, 117Cd, 118Cd, 119Cd, 120Cd, 121Cd, 122Cd, 123Cd, 124Cd, 125Cd, 126Cd, 127Cd, 128Cd, 129Cd, 130Cd, 131Cd, 132Cd
Stable IsotopesNaturally occurring stable isotopes:

232Th

Naturally occurring stable isotopes:

106Cd, 108Cd, 110Cd, 111Cd, 112Cd, 114Cd

Neutron Cross Section 7.4 2450
Neutron Mass Absorption 0.001 1.4

Chemical Properties: Ionization Energies and electron affinity

Valence or Valency4 2
Electronegativity1.3 Pauling Scale1.69 Pauling Scale
Electron Affinity- 0 kJ/mol
Ionization Energies
1st: 587 kJ/mol
2nd: 1110 kJ/mol
3rd: 1930 kJ/mol
4th: 2780 kJ/mol
1st: 867.8 kJ/mol
2nd: 1631.4 kJ/mol
3rd: 3616 kJ/mol

Physical Properties

Density11.724 g/cm38.65 g/cm3
Molar Volume19.7917 cm3/mol12.995 cm3/mol

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus79 50
Shear Modulus31 GPa19 GPa
Bulk Modulus54 GPa42 GPa
Poisson Ratio0.27 0.3

Hardness - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness3 MPa2 MPa
Vickers Hardness350 MPa-
Brinell Hardness400 MPa203 MPa

Electrical Properties

Electrical Conductivity6700000 S/m14000000 S/m
Resistivity 1.5e-7 m Ω7e-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point1.38 0.517

Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity54 W/(m K)97 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion0.000011 /K0.0000308 /K

Magnetic Properties

Magnetic TypeParamagnetic Diamagnetic
Curie Point- -
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility7.2e-9 m3/kg-2.3e-9 m3/kg
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility1.7e-9 m3/mol-2.59e-10 m3/mol
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility0.000084 -0.0000199

Optical Properties

Refractive Index- -

Acoustic Properties

Speed of Sound2490 m/s2310 m/s

Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Melting Point2023 K594.22 K
Boiling Point5093 K1040 K
Critical Temperature- -
Superconducting Point1.38 0.517

Enthalpies

Heat of Fusion16 kJ/mol6.3 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization530 kJ/mol100 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion- -

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS NumberCAS7440-29-1 CAS7440-43-9
RTECS NumberRTECSXO6400000 RTECSEU9800000
DOT Hazard Class7 6.1
DOT Numbers2975 2570
EU NumberEU231-139-7 -
NFPA Fire Rating- 2
NFPA Hazards- -
NFPA Health Rating- 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating- 0
AutoIgnition Point130 °C250 °C
Flashpoint- -

Compare With Other Elements

Compare Thorium with all Group elements

Compare Thorium with all Period 7 elements

Compare Thorium with all Actinide elements

Compare Cadmium with all Group 12 elements

Compare Cadmium with all Period 5 elements

Compare Cadmium with all Transition Metal elements