Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends, Uses, Comparison with other elements
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous Transition Metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.
It belongs to group 4 of the periodic table having trivial name .
Read key information and facts about element Titanium
|Appearance||silvery grey-white metallic|
|Group in Periodic Table||4|
|Group Name||titanium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||period 4|
|Block in Periodic Table||d -block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Ar] 3d2 4s2|
|Electronic Shell Structure (Electrons per shell)||2, 8, 10, 2|
|Melting Point||1941 K|
|Boiling Point||3560 K|
How to Locate Titanium on Periodic Table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 22 to find Titanium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Titanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.
The element Titanium was discovered by W. Gregor in year 1791 in United Kingdom. Titanium was first isolated by J. Berzelius in 1825. Titanium derived its name from Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology.
Gregor found an oxide of a new metal in ilmenite; Martin Heinrich Klaproth independently discovered the element inrutilein 1795 and named it. The pure metallic form was only obtained in 1910 byMatthew A. Hunter.
Titanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us
The table below shows the abundance of Titanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)||ppb by atoms (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||3000||80|
|Abundance in Sun||4000||100|
|Abundance in Meteorites||550000||230000|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||6600000||2900000|
|Abundance in Oceans||1||0.13|
|Abundance in Humans||-||-|
Crystal Structure of Titanium
The solid state structure of Titanium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
Unit Cell Parameters
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
|295.08 pm||295.08 pm||468.55 pm|
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Oxidation States||Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Titanium Atomic and Orbital Properties
Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||22|
|Number of Protons||22|
|Number of Neutrons||26|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||2, 8, 10, 2|
|Electron Configuration||[Ar] 3d2 4s2|
|Valence Electrons||3d2 4s2|
|Main Oxidation States||2, 3, 4|
|Oxidation States||-2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3F2|
Bohr Atomic Model of Titanium - Electrons per energy level
Ground State Electronic Configuration of Titanium - neutral Titanium atom
Abbreviated electronic configuration of Titanium
The ground state abbreviated electronic configuration of Neutral Titanium atom is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The portion of Titanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used. This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d2 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Titanium
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Titanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2
Electrons are filled in atomic orbitals as per the order determined by the Aufbau principle, Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s Rule.
Atomic Structure of Titanium
Titanium atomic radius is 176 pm, while it's covalent radius is 136 pm.
|Atomic Radius Calculated|
176 pm (1.76 Å)
|Atomic Radius Empirical|
140 pm (1.4 Å)
|Atomic Volume||10.621 cm3/mol|
|Covalent Radius||136 pm (1.36 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||-|
|Neutron Cross Section||6.1|
|Neutron Mass Absorption||0.0044|
Atomic Spectrum of Titanium
Titanium Chemical Properties: Titanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity
The electron affinity of Titanium is 7.6 kJ/mol.
Ionization Energy of Titanium
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Titanium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Titanium Physical Properties
Refer to below table for Titanium Physical Properties
|Density||4.507 g/cm3(when liquid at m.p density is $4.11 g/cm3)|
|Molar Volume||10.621 cm3/mol|
|Shear Modulus||44 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||110 GPa|
Hardness of Titanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element
|Mohs Hardness||6 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||970 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||716 MPa|
Titanium Electrical Properties
Titanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties ofTitanium
|Electrical Conductivity||2500000 S/m|
|Resistivity||4e-7 m Ω|
Titanium Heat and Conduction Properties
|Thermal Conductivity||22 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000086 /K|
Titanium Magnetic Properties
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||4.01e-8 m3/kg|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||1.919e-9 m3/mol|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0001807|
Optical Properties of Titanium
Acoustic Properties of Titanium
|Speed of Sound||4140 m/s|
Titanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Titanium
|Melting Point||1941 K (1667.85°C, 3034.13 °F)|
|Boiling Point||3560 K (3286.85°C, 5948.33 °F)|
Enthalpies of Titanium
|Heat of Fusion||18.7 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||425 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||-|
Titanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Titanium
Titanium has 26 isotopes, with between 38 and 63 nucleons. Titanium has 5 stable naturally occuring isotopes.
Isotopes of Titanium - Naturally occurring stable Isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 50Ti.
|Isotope||Z||N||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|