Y Yttrium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

39
Y
Yttrium

Yttrium

Element 39 of Periodic table is Yttrium with atomic number 39, atomic weight 88.90585. Yttrium, symbol Y, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Yttrium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Yttrium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

39 Y - Yttrium | SchoolMyKids

Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and it has often been classified as a "rare earth element". Yttrium is almost always found combined with the lanthanides in rare earth minerals and is never found in nature as a free element.

How to Locate Yttrium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 39 to find Yttrium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Yttrium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Yttrium History

The element Yttrium was discovered by Johan Gadolin in year 1794 in Finland . Yttrium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden

Yttrium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Yttrium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.9e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 2.9e-05
Abundance in Oceans 1.3×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Yttrium

The solid state structure of Yttrium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
364.74 364.74 573.06 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 39 Y Yttrium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Yttrium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Yttrium atoms have 39 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number 39
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 39
Number of Protons 39
Mass Number 89
Number of Neutrons 50
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 9, 2]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d1 5s2
Valence Electrons 4d1 5s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2

Shell Structure of Yttrium - Electrons per energy level

39 Y Yttrium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 1
5 O 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Yttrium - neutral Yttrium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Yttrium atom is [Kr] 4d1 5s2. The portion of Yttrium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d1 5s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Yttrium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Yttrium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d1 5s2

Atomic Structure of Yttrium

Yttrium atomic radius is 212 pm, while it's covalent radius is 162 pm.

Atomic Radius

212 pm (2.12 Å)

Atomic Volume 19.8805567979 cm3
Covalent Radius 162 pm (1.62 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 1.28 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Yttrium

Atomic Spectrum of Yttrium | SchoolMyKids

Yttrium Chemical Properties: Yttrium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Yttrium is 29.6 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.22
ElectronAffinity 29.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Yttrium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Yttrium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 600
2 1180
3 1980
4 5847
5 7430
6 8970
7 11190
8 12450
9 14110
10 1.84×104

Yttrium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Yttrium Physical Properties

Density 4.472 g/cm3
Molar Volume 19.8805567979 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 64 GPa
Shear Modulus 26 GPa
Bulk Modulus 41 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.24

Hardness of Yttrium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 589 MPa

Yttrium Electrical Properties

Yttrium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Yttrium

Electrical Conductivity 1.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 5.6×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 1.3

Yttrium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 17 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000106 K-1

Yttrium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6.66×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 5.921×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0002978

Optical Properties of Yttrium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Yttrium

Speed of Sound 3.3×103 m/s

Yttrium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Yttrium

Melting Point 1799 K (1526 °C)
Boiling Point 3618 K (3345 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 1.3

Enthalpies of Yttrium

Heat of Fusion 11.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 380 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Yttrium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Yttrium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Yttrium has 1 stable isotope - 89Y.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
76Y  
77Y  
78Y  
79Y  
80Y  
81Y  
82Y  
83Y  
84Y  
85Y  
86Y  
87Y  
88Y  
89Y   100% Stable N/A
90Y  
91Y  
92Y  
93Y  
94Y  
95Y  
96Y  
97Y  
98Y  
99Y  
100Y  
101Y  
102Y  
103Y  
104Y  
105Y  
106Y  
107Y  
108Y  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-65-5
RTECS Number RTECSZG2980000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 2
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-65-5
CID Number CID23993
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSZG2980000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide