V Vanadium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

23
V
Vanadium

Vanadium

Element 23 of Periodic table is Vanadium with atomic number 23, atomic weight 50.9415. Vanadium, symbol V, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Vanadium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Vanadium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

23 V - Vanadium | SchoolMyKids

Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23. It is a hard, silvery grey, ductile and malleable transition metal. The element is found only in chemically combined form in nature, but once isolated artificially, the formation of an oxide layer stabilizes the free metal somewhat against further oxidation.

How to Locate Vanadium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 23 to find Vanadium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Vanadium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Vanadium History

The element Vanadium was discovered by Andrés Manuel del Río in year 1801 in Mexico and Sweden . Vanadium derived its name from Vanadis, an Old Norse name for the Scandinavian goddess Freyja

Vanadium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Vanadium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1e-06
Abundance in Sun 4e-07
Abundance in Meteorites 6.1e-05
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00019
Abundance in Oceans 1.5×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 3×10-6%

Crystal Structure of Vanadium

The solid state structure of Vanadium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
303 303 303 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m 23 V Vanadium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Vanadium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Vanadium atoms have 23 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 11, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2.

Atomic Number 23
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 23
Number of Protons 23
Mass Number 51
Number of Neutrons 28
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 11, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d3 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d3 4s2
Oxidation State -3;-1
1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F3/2

Shell Structure of Vanadium - Electrons per energy level

23 V Vanadium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 3
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Vanadium - neutral Vanadium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Vanadium atom is [Ar] 3d3 4s2. The portion of Vanadium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d3 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Vanadium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Vanadium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d3 4s2

Atomic Structure of Vanadium

Vanadium atomic radius is 171 pm, while it's covalent radius is 125 pm.

Atomic Radius

171 pm (1.71 Å)

Atomic Volume 8.33739770867 cm3
Covalent Radius 125 pm (1.25 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 5.06 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Vanadium

Atomic Spectrum of Vanadium | SchoolMyKids

Vanadium Chemical Properties: Vanadium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Vanadium is 50.6 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 1.63
ElectronAffinity 50.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Vanadium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Vanadium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 650.9
2 1414
3 2830
4 4507
5 6298.7
6 12363
7 14530
8 16730
9 19860
10 22240
11 24670
12 29730
13 32446
14 86450
15 94170
16 1.023×105
17 1.127×105
18 1.216×105
19 1.307×105
20 1.434×105
21 151440

Vanadium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Vanadium Physical Properties

Density 6.11 g/cm3
Molar Volume 8.33739770867 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 128 GPa
Shear Modulus 47 GPa
Bulk Modulus 160 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.37

Hardness of Vanadium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 7 MPa
Vickers Hardness 628 MPa
Brinell Hardness 628 MPa

Vanadium Electrical Properties

Vanadium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Vanadium

Electrical Conductivity 5×106 S/m
Resistivity 2×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 5.4

Vanadium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 31 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.4×10-6 K-1

Vanadium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6.28×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 3.199×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0003837

Optical Properties of Vanadium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Vanadium

Speed of Sound 4560 m/s

Vanadium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Vanadium

Melting Point 2183 K (1910 °C)
Boiling Point 3680 K (3407 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 5.4

Enthalpies of Vanadium

Heat of Fusion 22.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 453 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Vanadium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Vanadium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Vanadium has 1 stable isotope - 51V.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
40V  
41V  
42V  
43V  
44V  
45V  
46V  
47V  
48V  
49V  
50V   0.25%
51V   99.75% Stable N/A
52V  
53V  
54V  
55V  
56V  
57V  
58V  
59V  
60V  
61V  
62V  
63V  
64V  
65V  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-62-2
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-62-2
CID Number CID23990
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide