Tm Thulium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

69
Tm
Thulium

Thulium

Element 69 of Periodic table is Thulium with atomic number 69, atomic weight 168.93421. Thulium, symbol Tm, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Thulium is a lanthanide element. Know everything about Thulium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

69 Tm - Thulium | SchoolMyKids

Thulium is a chemical element with symbol Tm and atomic number 69. It is the thirteenth and antepenultimate (third-last) element in the lanthanide series. Like the other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, seen in its oxide, halides and other compounds.

How to Locate Thulium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 69 to find Thulium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Thulium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Thulium History

The element Thulium was discovered by Per Teodor Cleve in year 1879 in Sweden . Thulium derived its name from Thule, the ancient name for Scandinavia

Thulium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Thulium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-8%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth's Crust 4.5e-07
Abundance in Oceans 2×10-11%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Thulium

The solid state structure of Thulium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
353.75 353.75 555.46 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 69 Tm Thulium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Thulium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Thulium atoms have 69 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2F7/2.

Atomic Number 69
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 69
Number of Protons 69
Mass Number 169
Number of Neutrons 100
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 31, 8, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f13 6s2
Valence Electrons 4f13 6s2
Oxidation State 2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2F7/2

Shell Structure of Thulium - Electrons per energy level

69 Tm Thulium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 13
5 O 2 6
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Thulium - neutral Thulium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Thulium atom is [Xe] 4f13 6s2. The portion of Thulium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f13 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Thulium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Thulium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f13 6s2

Atomic Structure of Thulium

Thulium atomic radius is 222 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.

Atomic Radius

222 pm (2.22 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.1240435576 cm3
Covalent Radius N/A
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 105 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Thulium

Atomic Spectrum of Thulium | SchoolMyKids

Thulium Chemical Properties: Thulium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Thulium is 50 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.25
ElectronAffinity 50 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Thulium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Thulium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 596.7
2 1160
3 2285
4 4120

Thulium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Thulium Physical Properties

Density 9.321 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.1240435576 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 74 GPa
Shear Modulus 31 GPa
Bulk Modulus 45 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.21

Hardness of Thulium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness 520 MPa
Brinell Hardness 471 MPa

Thulium Electrical Properties

Thulium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Thulium

Electrical Conductivity 1.4×106 S/m
Resistivity 7×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Thulium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 17 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000133 K-1

Thulium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point 25 K
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.99×10-6
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 3.36179×10-7
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0185488

Optical Properties of Thulium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Thulium

Speed of Sound N/A

Thulium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Thulium

Melting Point 1818 K (1545 °C)
Boiling Point 2223 K (1950 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Thulium

Heat of Fusion 16.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 250 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Thulium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Thulium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Thulium has 1 stable isotope - 169Tm.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
145Tm  
146Tm  
147Tm  
148Tm  
149Tm  
150Tm  
151Tm  
152Tm  
153Tm  
154Tm  
155Tm  
156Tm  
157Tm  
158Tm  
159Tm  
160Tm  
161Tm  
162Tm  
163Tm  
164Tm  
165Tm  
166Tm  
167Tm  
168Tm  
169Tm   100% Stable N/A
170Tm  
171Tm  
172Tm  
173Tm  
174Tm  
175Tm  
176Tm  
177Tm  
178Tm  
179Tm  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-30-4
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-30-4
CID Number CID23961
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide