Ti Titanium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

22
Ti
Titanium

Titanium

Element 22 of Periodic table is Titanium with atomic number 22, atomic weight 47.867. Titanium, symbol Ti, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Titanium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Titanium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

22 Ti - Titanium | SchoolMyKids

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density and high strength. It is highly resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia and chlorine.

How to Locate Titanium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 22 to find Titanium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Titanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Titanium History

The element Titanium was discovered by William Gregor in year 1791 in United Kingdom . Titanium derived its name from Titans, the sons of the Earth goddess of Greek mythology

Titanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Titanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 3e-06
Abundance in Sun 4e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.00054
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.0066
Abundance in Oceans 1×10-7%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Titanium

The solid state structure of Titanium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
295.08 295.08 468.55 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 22 Ti Titanium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Titanium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Titanium atoms have 22 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number 22
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 22
Number of Protons 22
Mass Number 48
Number of Neutrons 26
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 10, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d2 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d2 4s2
Oxidation State -2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell Structure of Titanium - Electrons per energy level

22 Ti Titanium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 2
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Titanium - neutral Titanium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Titanium atom is [Ar] 3d2 4s2. The portion of Titanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d2 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Titanium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Titanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d2 4s2

Atomic Structure of Titanium

Titanium atomic radius is 176 pm, while it's covalent radius is 136 pm.

Atomic Radius

176 pm (1.76 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.620590193 cm3
Covalent Radius 136 pm (1.36 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 6.1 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Titanium

Atomic Spectrum of Titanium | SchoolMyKids

Titanium Chemical Properties: Titanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Titanium is 7.6 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.54
ElectronAffinity 7.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Titanium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Titanium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 658.8
2 1309.8
3 2652.5
4 4174.6
5 9581
6 11533
7 13590
8 16440
9 18530
10 20833
11 25575
12 28125
13 76015
14 83280
15 90880
16 1.007×105
17 1.091×105
18 1.178×105
19 1.299×105
20 137530
21 602930

Titanium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Titanium Physical Properties

Density 4.507 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.620590193 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 116 GPa
Shear Modulus 44 GPa
Bulk Modulus 110 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.32

Hardness of Titanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6 MPa
Vickers Hardness 970 MPa
Brinell Hardness 716 MPa

Titanium Electrical Properties

Titanium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Titanium

Electrical Conductivity 2.5×106 S/m
Resistivity 4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.4

Titanium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 22 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.6×10-6 K-1

Titanium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 4.01×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.919×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0001807

Optical Properties of Titanium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Titanium

Speed of Sound 4140 m/s

Titanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Titanium

Melting Point 1941 K (1668 °C)
Boiling Point 3560 K (3287 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.4

Enthalpies of Titanium

Heat of Fusion 18.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 425 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Titanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Titanium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Titanium has 5 stable isotope - 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, 50Ti.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
38Ti  
39Ti  
40Ti  
41Ti  
42Ti  
43Ti  
44Ti  
45Ti  
46Ti   8.25% Stable N/A
47Ti   7.44% Stable N/A
48Ti   73.72% Stable N/A
49Ti   5.41% Stable N/A
50Ti   5.18% Stable N/A
51Ti  
52Ti  
53Ti  
54Ti  
55Ti  
56Ti  
57Ti  
58Ti  
59Ti  
60Ti  
61Ti  
62Ti  
63Ti  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-32-6
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.2
DOT Numbers 2546
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point 250 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-32-6
CID Number CID23963
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide