Tb Terbium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

65
Tb
Terbium

Terbium

Element 65 of Periodic table is Terbium with atomic number 65, atomic weight 158.92534. Terbium, symbol Tb, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Terbium is a lanthanide element. Know everything about Terbium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

65 Tb - Terbium | SchoolMyKids

Terbium is a chemical element with symbol Tb and atomic number 65. It is a silvery-white rare earth metal that is malleable, ductile and soft enough to be cut with a knife. Terbium is never found in nature as a free element, but it is contained in many minerals, including cerite, gadolinite, monazite, xenotime and euxenite.

How to Locate Terbium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 65 to find Terbium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Terbium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Terbium History

The element Terbium was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in year 1843 in Sweden . Terbium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden

Terbium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Terbium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 5×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-8%
Abundance in Meteorites 3.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth's Crust 9.3e-07
Abundance in Oceans 1.4×10-11%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Terbium

The solid state structure of Terbium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
360.1 360.1 569.36 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 65 Tb Terbium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Terbium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Terbium atoms have 65 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6H15/2.

Atomic Number 65
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 65
Number of Protons 65
Mass Number 159
Number of Neutrons 94
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 27, 8, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f9 6s2
Valence Electrons 4f9 6s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6H15/2

Shell Structure of Terbium - Electrons per energy level

65 Tb Terbium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 9
5 O 2 6
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Terbium - neutral Terbium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Terbium atom is [Xe] 4f9 6s2. The portion of Terbium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f9 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Terbium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Terbium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f9 6s2

Atomic Structure of Terbium

Terbium atomic radius is 225 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.

Atomic Radius

225 pm (2.25 Å)

Atomic Volume 19.3363353206 cm3
Covalent Radius N/A
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 23 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Terbium

Atomic Spectrum of Terbium | SchoolMyKids

Terbium Chemical Properties: Terbium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Terbium is 50 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity N/A
ElectronAffinity 50 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Terbium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Terbium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 565.8
2 1110
3 2114
4 3839

Terbium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Terbium Physical Properties

Density 8.219 g/cm3
Molar Volume 19.3363353206 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 56 GPa
Shear Modulus 22 GPa
Bulk Modulus 38.7 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.26

Hardness of Terbium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness 863 MPa
Brinell Hardness 677 MPa

Terbium Electrical Properties

Terbium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Terbium

Electrical Conductivity 8.3×105 S/m
Resistivity 1.2×10-6 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Terbium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 11 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000103 K-1

Terbium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point 222 K
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.36e-05
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 2.161385×10-6
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.1117784

Optical Properties of Terbium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Terbium

Speed of Sound 2620 m/s

Terbium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Terbium

Melting Point 1629 K (1356 °C)
Boiling Point 3503 K (3230 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Terbium

Heat of Fusion 10.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 295 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Terbium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Terbium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Terbium has 1 stable isotope - 159Tb.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
136Tb  
137Tb  
138Tb  
139Tb  
140Tb  
141Tb  
142Tb  
143Tb  
144Tb  
145Tb  
146Tb  
147Tb  
148Tb  
149Tb  
150Tb  
151Tb  
152Tb  
153Tb  
154Tb  
155Tb  
156Tb  
157Tb  
158Tb  
159Tb   100% Stable N/A
160Tb  
161Tb  
162Tb  
163Tb  
164Tb  
165Tb  
166Tb  
167Tb  
168Tb  
169Tb  
170Tb  
171Tb  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-27-9
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-27-9
CID Number CID23958
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide