Sc Scandium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

21
Sc
Scandium

Scandium

Element 21 of Periodic table is Scandium with atomic number 21, atomic weight 44.95591. Scandium, symbol Sc, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Scandium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Scandium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

21 Sc - Scandium | SchoolMyKids

Scandium is a chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21. A silvery-white metallic d-block element, it has historically been sometimes classified as a rare earth element, together with yttrium and the lanthanoids. It was discovered in 1879 by spectral analysis of the minerals euxenite and gadolinite from Scandinavia.

How to Locate Scandium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 21 to find Scandium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Scandium on periodic table look for cross section of group 3 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Scandium History

The element Scandium was discovered by Lars Fredrik Nilson in year 1879 in Sweden . Scandium derived its name from Scandia, the Latin name for Scandinavia

Scandium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Scandium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 3×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.4e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 2.6e-05
Abundance in Oceans 1.5×10-10%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Scandium

The solid state structure of Scandium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
330.9 330.9 527.33 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 21 Sc Scandium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Scandium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Scandium atoms have 21 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2.

Atomic Number 21
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 21
Number of Protons 21
Mass Number 45
Number of Neutrons 24
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 9, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d1 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d1 4s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2D3/2

Shell Structure of Scandium - Electrons per energy level

21 Sc Scandium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 1
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Scandium - neutral Scandium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Scandium atom is [Ar] 3d1 4s2. The portion of Scandium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d1 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Scandium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Scandium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d1 4s2

Atomic Structure of Scandium

Scandium atomic radius is 184 pm, while it's covalent radius is 144 pm.

Atomic Radius

184 pm (1.84 Å)

Atomic Volume 15.0606063652 cm3
Covalent Radius 144 pm (1.44 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 27.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Scandium

Atomic Spectrum of Scandium | SchoolMyKids

Scandium Chemical Properties: Scandium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Scandium is 18.1 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.36
ElectronAffinity 18.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Scandium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Scandium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 633.1
2 1235
3 2388.6
4 7090.6
5 8843
6 10679
7 13310
8 15250
9 17370
10 21726
11 24102
12 66320
13 73010
14 80160
15 89490
16 9.74×104
17 1.056×105
18 1.17×105
19 124270
20 547530
21 582163

Scandium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Scandium Physical Properties

Density 2.985 g/cm3
Molar Volume 15.0606063652 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 74 GPa
Shear Modulus 29 GPa
Bulk Modulus 57 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.28

Hardness of Scandium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 750 MPa

Scandium Electrical Properties

Scandium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Scandium

Electrical Conductivity 1.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 5.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.05

Scandium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 16 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000102 K-1

Scandium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 8.8×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 3.956×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0002627

Optical Properties of Scandium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Scandium

Speed of Sound N/A

Scandium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Scandium

Melting Point 1814 K (1541 °C)
Boiling Point 3103 K (2830 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.05

Enthalpies of Scandium

Heat of Fusion 16 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 318 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Scandium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Scandium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Scandium has 1 stable isotope - 45Sc.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
36Sc  
37Sc  
38Sc  
39Sc  
40Sc  
41Sc  
42Sc  
43Sc  
44Sc  
45Sc   100% Stable N/A
46Sc  
47Sc  
48Sc  
49Sc  
50Sc  
51Sc  
52Sc  
53Sc  
54Sc  
55Sc  
56Sc  
57Sc  
58Sc  
59Sc  
60Sc  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-20-2
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-20-2
CID Number CID23952
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide