Pd Palladium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

46
Pd
Palladium

Palladium

Element 46 of Periodic table is Palladium with atomic number 46, atomic weight 106.42. Palladium, symbol Pd, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Palladium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Palladium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

46 Pd - Palladium | SchoolMyKids

Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston. He named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas.

How to Locate Palladium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 46 to find Palladium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Palladium on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Palladium History

The element Palladium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in year 1803 in United Kingdom . Palladium derived its name from the then recently discovered asteroid Pallas, considered a planet at the time

Palladium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Palladium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 2×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 3×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.6e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 6.3×10-7%
Abundance in Oceans N/A
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Palladium

The solid state structure of Palladium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
389.07 389.07 389.07 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 46 Pd Palladium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Palladium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Palladium atoms have 46 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 46
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 46
Number of Protons 46
Mass Number 106
Number of Neutrons 60
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10
Valence Electrons 4d10
Oxidation State 1;2;3;4;5;6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Palladium - Electrons per energy level

46 Pd Palladium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Palladium - neutral Palladium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Palladium atom is [Kr] 4d10. The portion of Palladium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Palladium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Palladium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10

Atomic Structure of Palladium

Palladium atomic radius is 169 pm, while it's covalent radius is 131 pm.

Atomic Radius

169 pm (1.69 Å)

Atomic Volume 8.85136821093 cm3
Covalent Radius 131 pm (1.31 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 163 pm
Neutron Cross Section 6.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Palladium

Atomic Spectrum of Palladium | SchoolMyKids

Palladium Chemical Properties: Palladium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Palladium is 53.7 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.2
ElectronAffinity 53.7 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Palladium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Palladium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 804.4
2 1870
3 3177

Palladium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Palladium Physical Properties

Density 12.023 g/cm3
Molar Volume 8.85136821093 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 121 GPa
Shear Modulus 44 GPa
Bulk Modulus 180 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.39

Hardness of Palladium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 4.75 MPa
Vickers Hardness 461 MPa
Brinell Hardness 37.3 MPa

Palladium Electrical Properties

Palladium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Palladium

Electrical Conductivity 1×107 S/m
Resistivity 1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Palladium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 72 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000118 K-1

Palladium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6.57×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 6.992×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0007899

Optical Properties of Palladium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Palladium

Speed of Sound 3070 m/s

Palladium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Palladium

Melting Point 1828.05 K (1554.9 °C)
Boiling Point 3236 K (2963 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Palladium

Heat of Fusion 16.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 380 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Palladium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Palladium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Palladium has 6 stable isotope - 102Pd, 104Pd, 105Pd, 106Pd, 108Pd, 110Pd.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
91Pd  
92Pd  
93Pd  
94Pd  
95Pd  
96Pd  
97Pd  
98Pd  
99Pd  
100Pd  
101Pd  
102Pd   1.02% Stable N/A
103Pd  
104Pd   11.14% Stable N/A
105Pd   22.33% Stable N/A
106Pd   27.33% Stable N/A
107Pd  
108Pd   26.46% Stable N/A
109Pd  
110Pd   11.72% Stable N/A
111Pd  
112Pd  
113Pd  
114Pd  
115Pd  
116Pd  
117Pd  
118Pd  
119Pd  
120Pd  
121Pd  
122Pd  
123Pd  
124Pd  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-05-3
RTECS Number RTECSRT3480500
DOT Hazard Class 4.2
DOT Numbers 3200
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-05-3
CID Number CID23938
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSRT3480500

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide