O Oxygen – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

8
O
Oxygen

Oxygen

Element 8 of Periodic table is Oxygen with atomic number 8, atomic weight 15.9994. Oxygen, symbol O, has a Base Centered Monoclinic structure and Colorless color. Oxygen is a other nonmetal element. Trivial name of Oxygen is chalcogens*. Know everything about Oxygen Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

8 O - Oxygen | SchoolMyKids

Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table and is a highly reactive nonmetal and oxidizing agent that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with most elements. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.

How to Locate Oxygen on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 8 to find Oxygen on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Oxygen on periodic table look for cross section of group 16 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Oxygen History

The element Oxygen was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in year 1774 in Sweden and United Kingdom . Oxygen derived its name from the Greek word oxy-, both 'sharp' and 'acid', and -gen, meaning 'acid-forming'

Oxygen Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Oxygen in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.01
Abundance in Sun 0.009
Abundance in Meteorites 0.4
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.46
Abundance in Oceans 0.86
Abundance in Humans 0.61

Crystal Structure of Oxygen

The solid state structure of Oxygen is Base Centered Monoclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
540.3 342.9 508.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 2.313085 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name C12/m1 8 O Oxygen - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 12
Crystal Structure Base Centered Monoclinic

Oxygen Atomic and Orbital Properties

Oxygen atoms have 8 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 6] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2.

Atomic Number 8
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 8
Number of Protons 8
Mass Number 16
Number of Neutrons 8
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 6]
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p4
Valence Electrons 2s2 2p4
Oxidation State -2;-1
1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P2

Shell Structure of Oxygen - Electrons per energy level

8 O Oxygen - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 4

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Oxygen - neutral Oxygen atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Oxygen atom is [He] 2s2 2p4. The portion of Oxygen configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p4, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Oxygen

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Oxygen atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p4

Atomic Structure of Oxygen

Oxygen atomic radius is 48 pm, while it's covalent radius is 73 pm.

Atomic Radius

48 pm (0.48 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.1962211337 cm3
Covalent Radius 73 pm (0.73 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 152 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.00028 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Oxygen

Atomic Spectrum of Oxygen | SchoolMyKids

Oxygen Chemical Properties: Oxygen Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Oxygen is 141 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 3.44
ElectronAffinity 141 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Oxygen

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Oxygen

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1313.9
2 3388.3
3 5300.5
4 7469.2
5 10989.5
6 13326.5
7 71330
8 84078

Oxygen Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Oxygen Physical Properties

Density 1.429 g/l
Molar Volume 11.1962211337 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Oxygen - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Oxygen Electrical Properties

Oxygen is N/A of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Oxygen

Electrical Conductivity N/A
Resistivity N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Oxygen Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.02658 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Oxygen Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.335×10-6
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 4.27184×10-8
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 1.90772×10-6

Optical Properties of Oxygen

Refractive Index 1.000271

Acoustic Properties of Oxygen

Speed of Sound 317.5 m/s

Oxygen Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Oxygen

Melting Point 54.8 K (-218.3 °C)
Boiling Point 90.2 K (-182.9 °C)
Critical Temperature 154.59 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Oxygen

Heat of Fusion 0.222 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 3.41 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Oxygen Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Oxygen

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Oxygen has 3 stable isotope - 16O, 17O, 18O.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
12O  
13O  
14O  
15O  
16O   99.757% Stable N/A
17O   0.038% Stable N/A
18O   0.205% Stable N/A
19O  
20O  
21O  
22O  
23O  
24O  
25O  
26O  
27O  
28O  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7782-44-7
RTECS Number RTECSRS2060000
DOT Hazard Class 2.2
DOT Numbers 1073
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards Oxidizing Agent
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7782-44-7
CID Number CID977
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSRS2060000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide