I Iodine – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

53
I
Iodine

Iodine

Element 53 of Periodic table is Iodine with atomic number 53, atomic weight 126.90447. Iodine, symbol I, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and SlateGray color. Iodine is a halogens element. Trivial name of Iodine is halogens*. Know everything about Iodine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

53 I - Iodine | SchoolMyKids

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53. The name is from Greek ἰοειδής ioeidēs, meaning violet or purple, due to the color of iodine vapor. Iodine and its compounds are primarily used in nutrition, and industrially in the production of acetic acid and certain polymers.

How to Locate Iodine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 53 to find Iodine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Iodine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Iodine History

The element Iodine was discovered by Bernard Courtois in year 1811 in France . Iodine derived its name from French iode (after the Greek ioeides, 'violet')

Iodine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Iodine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-7%
Abundance in Sun N/A
Abundance in Meteorites 2.5e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 4.9e-07
Abundance in Oceans 6×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 2e-07

Crystal Structure of Iodine

The solid state structure of Iodine is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
718.02 471.02 981.03 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca 53 I Iodine - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Iodine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Iodine atoms have 53 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.

Atomic Number 53
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 53
Number of Protons 53
Mass Number 127
Number of Neutrons 74
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 7]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5
Valence Electrons 5s2 5p5
Oxidation State -1
1;3;4;5;6;7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2

Shell Structure of Iodine - Electrons per energy level

53 I Iodine - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 2 5

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Iodine - neutral Iodine atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Iodine atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p5. The portion of Iodine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2 5p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Iodine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Iodine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p5

Atomic Structure of Iodine

Iodine atomic radius is 115 pm, while it's covalent radius is 133 pm.

Atomic Radius

115 pm (1.15 Å)

Atomic Volume 25.6891639676 cm3
Covalent Radius 133 pm (1.33 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 198 pm
Neutron Cross Section 6.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Iodine

Atomic Spectrum of Iodine | SchoolMyKids

Iodine Chemical Properties: Iodine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Iodine is 295.2 kJ/mol

Valence 7
Electronegativity 2.66
ElectronAffinity 295.2 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Iodine

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Iodine

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1008.4
2 1845.9
3 3180

Iodine Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Iodine Physical Properties

Density 4.94 g/cm3
Molar Volume 25.6891639676 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 7.7 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Iodine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Iodine Electrical Properties

Iodine is Insulator of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Iodine

Electrical Conductivity 1×10-7 S/m
Resistivity 1×107 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Iodine Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.449 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Iodine Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -4.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.14×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.22e-05

Optical Properties of Iodine

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Iodine

Speed of Sound N/A

Iodine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Iodine

Melting Point 386.85 K (113.7 °C)
Boiling Point 457.4 K (184.3 °C)
Critical Temperature 819 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Iodine

Heat of Fusion 7.76 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 20.9 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Iodine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Iodine

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Iodine has 1 stable isotope - 127I.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
108I  
109I  
110I  
111I  
112I  
113I  
114I  
115I  
116I  
117I  
118I  
119I  
120I  
121I  
122I  
123I  
124I  
125I  
126I  
127I   100% Stable N/A
128I  
129I  
130I  
131I  
132I  
133I  
134I  
135I  
136I  
137I  
138I  
139I  
140I  
141I  
142I  
143I  
144I  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7553-56-2
RTECS Number RTECSNN1575000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 1759
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7553-56-2
CID Number CID807
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSNN1575000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide