Hf Hafnium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

72
Hf
Hafnium

Hafnium

Element 72 of Periodic table is Hafnium with atomic number 72, atomic weight 178.49. Hafnium, symbol Hf, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Gray color. Hafnium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Hafnium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

72 Hf - Hafnium | SchoolMyKids

Hafnium is a chemical element with symbol Hf and atomic number 72. A lustrous, silvery gray, tetravalent transition metal, hafnium chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals. Its existence was predicted by Dmitri Mendeleev in 1869, though it was not identified until 1923, making it the penultimate stable element to be discovered (rhenium was identified two years later).

How to Locate Hafnium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 72 to find Hafnium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Hafnium on periodic table look for cross section of group 4 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Hafnium History

The element Hafnium was discovered by Dirk Coster in year 1923 in Denmark . Hafnium derived its name from Hafnia, the New Latin name for Copenhagen

Hafnium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Hafnium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.7e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 3.3e-06
Abundance in Oceans 8×10-10%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Hafnium

The solid state structure of Hafnium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
319.64 319.64 505.11 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 72 Hf Hafnium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Hafnium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Hafnium atoms have 72 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number 72
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 72
Number of Protons 72
Mass Number 178
Number of Neutrons 106
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 10, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2
Valence Electrons 5d2 6s2
Oxidation State -2
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell Structure of Hafnium - Electrons per energy level

72 Hf Hafnium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 2
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Hafnium - neutral Hafnium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Hafnium atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d2 6s2. The portion of Hafnium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d2 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Hafnium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Hafnium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d2 6s2

Atomic Structure of Hafnium

Hafnium atomic radius is 208 pm, while it's covalent radius is 150 pm.

Atomic Radius

208 pm (2.08 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.4102178813 cm3
Covalent Radius 150 pm (1.5 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 104 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Hafnium

Atomic Spectrum of Hafnium | SchoolMyKids

Hafnium Chemical Properties: Hafnium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Hafnium is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.3
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Hafnium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Hafnium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 658.5
2 1440
3 2250
4 3216

Hafnium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Hafnium Physical Properties

Density 13.31 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.4102178813 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 78 GPa
Shear Modulus 30 GPa
Bulk Modulus 110 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.37

Hardness of Hafnium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 5.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1760 MPa
Brinell Hardness 1.7×103 MPa

Hafnium Electrical Properties

Hafnium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Hafnium

Electrical Conductivity 3.3×106 S/m
Resistivity 3×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.128

Hafnium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 23 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 5.9×10-6 K-1

Hafnium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 5.3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 9.46×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 7.05e-05

Optical Properties of Hafnium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Hafnium

Speed of Sound 3010 m/s

Hafnium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Hafnium

Melting Point 2506 K (2233 °C)
Boiling Point 4876 K (4603 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.128

Enthalpies of Hafnium

Heat of Fusion 25.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 630 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Hafnium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Hafnium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Hafnium has 5 stable isotope - 176Hf, 177Hf, 178Hf, 179Hf, 180Hf.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
153Hf  
154Hf  
155Hf  
156Hf  
157Hf  
158Hf  
159Hf  
160Hf  
161Hf  
162Hf  
163Hf  
164Hf  
165Hf  
166Hf  
167Hf  
168Hf  
169Hf  
170Hf  
171Hf  
172Hf  
173Hf  
174Hf   0.16%
175Hf  
176Hf   5.26% Stable N/A
177Hf   18.6% Stable N/A
178Hf   27.28% Stable N/A
179Hf   13.62% Stable N/A
180Hf   35.08% Stable N/A
181Hf  
182Hf  
183Hf  
184Hf  
185Hf  
186Hf  
187Hf  
188Hf  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-58-6
RTECS Number RTECSMG4600000
DOT Hazard Class 4.2
DOT Numbers 2545
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-58-6
CID Number CID23986
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMG4600000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide