H Hydrogen – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

1
H
Hydrogen

Hydrogen

Element 1 of Periodic table is Hydrogen with atomic number 1, atomic weight 1.00794. Hydrogen, symbol H, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Colorless color. Hydrogen is a other nonmetal element. Trivial name of Hydrogen is alkali metals*. Know everything about Hydrogen Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

1 H - Hydrogen | SchoolMyKids

Hydrogen is a chemical element with chemical symbol H and atomic number 1. With an atomic weight of 1.00794 u, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. Its monatomic form (H) is the most abundant chemical substance in the Universe, constituting roughly 75% of all baryonic mass.

How to Locate Hydrogen on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 1 to find Hydrogen on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Hydrogen on periodic table look for cross section of group 1 and period 1 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Hydrogen History

The element Hydrogen was discovered by Henry Cavendish in year 1766 in United Kingdom . Hydrogen derived its name from the Greek elements hydro- and -gen meaning 'water-forming'

Hydrogen Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Hydrogen in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.75
Abundance in Sun 0.75
Abundance in Meteorites 0.024
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.0015
Abundance in Oceans 0.11
Abundance in Humans 0.1

Crystal Structure of Hydrogen

The solid state structure of Hydrogen is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
470 pm 470 pm 340 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 1 H Hydrogen - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Hydrogen Atomic and Orbital Properties

Hydrogen atoms have 1 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number 1
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 1
Number of Protons 1
Mass Number 1
Number of Neutrons 0
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [1]
Electron Configuration 1s1
Valence Electrons 1s1
Oxidation State -1
1
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Hydrogen - Electrons per energy level

1 H Hydrogen - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Hydrogen - neutral Hydrogen atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Hydrogen atom is 1s1. The portion of Hydrogen configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as 1s1]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 1s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Hydrogen

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Hydrogen atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s1

Atomic Structure of Hydrogen

Hydrogen atomic radius is 53 pm, while it's covalent radius is 37 pm.

Atomic Radius

53 pm (0.53 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.2117908788 cm3
Covalent Radius 37 pm (0.37 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 120 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.332 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen

Atomic Spectrum of Hydrogen | SchoolMyKids

Hydrogen Chemical Properties: Hydrogen Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Hydrogen is 72.8 kJ/mol

Valence 1
Electronegativity 2.2
ElectronAffinity 72.8 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Hydrogen

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Hydrogen

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1312

Hydrogen Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Hydrogen Physical Properties

Density 0.0899 g/l
Molar Volume 11.2117908788 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Hydrogen - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Hydrogen Electrical Properties

Hydrogen is N/A of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Hydrogen

Electrical Conductivity N/A
Resistivity N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Hydrogen Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.1805 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Hydrogen Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -2.48×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -4.999×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.23×10-9

Optical Properties of Hydrogen

Refractive Index 1.000132

Acoustic Properties of Hydrogen

Speed of Sound 1270 m/s

Hydrogen Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Hydrogen

Melting Point 14.01 K (-259.14 °C)
Boiling Point 20.28 K (-252.87 °C)
Critical Temperature 32.97 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Hydrogen

Heat of Fusion 0.558 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 0.452 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Hydrogen Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Hydrogen

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Hydrogen has 2 stable isotope - 1H, 2H.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
1H   - Stable N/A
2H   Stable N/A
3H  
4H  
5H  
6H  
7H  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS1333-74-0
RTECS Number RTECSMW8900000
DOT Hazard Class 2.1
DOT Numbers 1966
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 4
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 3
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 535.5 °C
Flashpoint -18 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS1333-74-0
CID Number CID783
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMW8900000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide