Ge Germanium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

32
Ge
Germanium

Germanium

Element 32 of Periodic table is Germanium with atomic number 32, atomic weight 72.64. Germanium, symbol Ge, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Germanium is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Germanium is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Germanium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

32 Ge - Germanium | SchoolMyKids

Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32. It is a lustrous, hard, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbors tin and silicon. Purified germanium is a semiconductor, with an appearance most similar to elemental silicon.

How to Locate Germanium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 32 to find Germanium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Germanium on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Germanium History

The element Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler in year 1886 in Germany . Germanium derived its name from Germania, the Latin name for Germany

Germanium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Germanium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 2e-07
Abundance in Sun 2e-07
Abundance in Meteorites 2.1e-05
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.4e-06
Abundance in Oceans 6×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Germanium

The solid state structure of Germanium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
565.75 565.75 565.75 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 32 Ge Germanium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Germanium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Germanium atoms have 32 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number 32
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 32
Number of Protons 32
Mass Number 73
Number of Neutrons 41
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 4]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell Structure of Germanium - Electrons per energy level

32 Ge Germanium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Germanium - neutral Germanium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Germanium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p2. The portion of Germanium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Germanium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Germanium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p2

Atomic Structure of Germanium

Germanium atomic radius is 125 pm, while it's covalent radius is 122 pm.

Atomic Radius

125 pm (1.25 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.6464399775 cm3
Covalent Radius 122 pm (1.22 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 2.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Germanium

Atomic Spectrum of Germanium | SchoolMyKids

Germanium Chemical Properties: Germanium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Germanium is 119 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.01
ElectronAffinity 119 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Germanium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Germanium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 762
2 1537.5
3 3302.1
4 4411
5 9020

Germanium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Germanium Physical Properties

Density 5.323 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.6464399775 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Germanium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Germanium Electrical Properties

Germanium is Semiconductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Germanium

Electrical Conductivity 2×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.0005 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Germanium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 60 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 6×10-6 K-1

Germanium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -7.98×10-6

Optical Properties of Germanium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Germanium

Speed of Sound 5.4×103 m/s

Germanium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Germanium

Melting Point 1211.4 K (938.3 °C)
Boiling Point 3093 K (2820 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Germanium

Heat of Fusion 31.8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 334 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion -536 J/(kg K)

Germanium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Germanium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Germanium has 4 stable isotope - 70Ge, 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
58Ge  
59Ge  
60Ge  
61Ge  
62Ge  
63Ge  
64Ge  
65Ge  
66Ge  
67Ge  
68Ge  
69Ge  
70Ge   20.84% Stable N/A
71Ge  
72Ge   27.54% Stable N/A
73Ge   7.73% Stable N/A
74Ge   36.28% Stable N/A
75Ge  
76Ge   7.61%
77Ge  
78Ge  
79Ge  
80Ge  
81Ge  
82Ge  
83Ge  
84Ge  
85Ge  
86Ge  
87Ge  
88Ge  
89Ge  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-56-4
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-56-4
CID Number CID6326954
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLY5200000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide