Element 31 of Periodic table is
Gallium with atomic number 31,
atomic weight 69.723.
Gallium, symbol Ga, has a
Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Silver color.
Gallium is a post-transition metal element.
Trivial name of Gallium is triels, icosagens.
Know everything about Gallium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical
Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).
Read key information and facts about element Gallium
Explore our interactive periodic table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of
The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and
ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number
31 to find Gallium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column)
and period number (row). To locate Gallium on periodic
table look for cross section of group 13 and period
4 in the modern periodic table.
Interactive Periodic Table to Understand
and Learn Cool Trends
The element Gallium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year
1875 in France
derived its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France
The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites,
Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
The solid state structure of Gallium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in
dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell
Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions (
xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible
symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups
(219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and
the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.
Shell Structure of Gallium - Electrons per energy
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is
[Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1.
The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of
the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this
notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is
the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p1, electrons in
the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1
Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.
The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gallium
Refer to below table for Gallium Physical Properties
Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to
below for the Electrical properties of Gallium
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gallium
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gallium has
2 stable isotope -
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases