Ga Gallium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

31
Ga
Gallium

Gallium

Element 31 of Periodic table is Gallium with atomic number 31, atomic weight 69.723. Gallium, symbol Ga, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Silver color. Gallium is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Gallium is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Gallium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

31 Ga - Gallium | SchoolMyKids

Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31. Elemental gallium does not occur in free form in nature, but as the gallium(III) compounds that are in trace amounts in zinc ores and in bauxite. Gallium is a soft, silvery metal, and elemental gallium is a brittle solid at low temperatures, and melts at 29.76 °C (85.57 °F) (slightly above room temperature).

How to Locate Gallium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 31 to find Gallium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gallium on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Gallium History

The element Gallium was discovered by Lecoq de Boisbaudran in year 1875 in France . Gallium derived its name from Gallia, the Latin name for France

Gallium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gallium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 7.6e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.9e-05
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-9%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Gallium

The solid state structure of Gallium is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
451.97 766.33 452.6 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca 31 Ga Gallium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Gallium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gallium atoms have 31 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.

Atomic Number 31
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 31
Number of Protons 31
Mass Number 70
Number of Neutrons 39
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 3]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1
Valence Electrons 4s2 4p1
Oxidation State -5;-4;-2;-1
1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell Structure of Gallium - Electrons per energy level

31 Ga Gallium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gallium - neutral Gallium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Gallium atom is [Ar] 3d10 4s2 4p1. The portion of Gallium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d10 4s2 4p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gallium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gallium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p1

Atomic Structure of Gallium

Gallium atomic radius is 136 pm, while it's covalent radius is 126 pm.

Atomic Radius

136 pm (1.36 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.8094512195 cm3
Covalent Radius 126 pm (1.26 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 187 pm
Neutron Cross Section 2.9 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gallium

Atomic Spectrum of Gallium | SchoolMyKids

Gallium Chemical Properties: Gallium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gallium is 28.9 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 1.81
ElectronAffinity 28.9 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Gallium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gallium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 578.8
2 1979.3
3 2963
4 6180

Gallium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gallium Physical Properties

Density 5.904 g/cm3
Molar Volume 11.8094512195 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Gallium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 60 MPa

Gallium Electrical Properties

Gallium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Gallium

Electrical Conductivity 7.1×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 1.083

Gallium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 29 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.00012 K-1

Gallium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -3×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -2.09×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.77e-05

Optical Properties of Gallium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Gallium

Speed of Sound 2740 m/s

Gallium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gallium

Melting Point 302.91 K (29.76 °C)
Boiling Point 2477 K (2204 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 1.083

Enthalpies of Gallium

Heat of Fusion 5.59 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 256 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Gallium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gallium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gallium has 2 stable isotope - 69Ga, 71Ga.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
56Ga  
57Ga  
58Ga  
59Ga  
60Ga  
61Ga  
62Ga  
63Ga  
64Ga  
65Ga  
66Ga  
67Ga  
68Ga  
69Ga   60.108% Stable N/A
70Ga  
71Ga   39.892% Stable N/A
72Ga  
73Ga  
74Ga  
75Ga  
76Ga  
77Ga  
78Ga  
79Ga  
80Ga  
81Ga  
82Ga  
83Ga  
84Ga  
85Ga  
86Ga  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-55-3
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000
DOT Hazard Class 8
DOT Numbers 2803
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-55-3
CID Number CID5360835
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSLW8600000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide