Erbium is a chemical element in the lanthanide series, with symbol Er and atomic number 68. A silvery-white solid metal when artificially isolated, natural erbium is always found in chemical combination with other elements on Earth. As such, it is a rare earth element which is associated with several other rare elements in the mineral gadolinite from Ytterby in Sweden, where yttrium, ytterbium, and terbium were discovered.
Read key information and facts about element Erbium
|Group in Periodic Table||N/A|
|Period in Periodic Table||6|
|Block in Periodic Table||f-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|Melting Point||1497 °C|
|Boiling Point||2868 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 68 to find Erbium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Erbium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.
The element Erbium was discovered by Carl Gustaf Mosander in year 1842 in Sweden . Erbium derived its name from Ytterby, Sweden
The table below shows the abundance of Erbium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2×10-7%|
|Abundance in Sun||1×10-7%|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1.8e-07|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||3e-06|
|Abundance in Oceans||9×10-11%|
|Abundance in Humans||N/A|
The solid state structure of Erbium is Simple Hexagonal.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||P63/mmc|
|Space Group Number||194|
|Crystal Structure||Simple Hexagonal|
Erbium atoms have 68 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3H6.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||68|
|Number of Protons||68|
|Number of Neutrons||99|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 18, 30, 8, 2]|
|Electron Configuration||[Xe] 4f12 6s2|
|Valence Electrons||4f12 6s2|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||3H6|
Shell Structure of Erbium - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Erbium atom is [Xe] 4f12 6s2. The portion of Erbium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f12 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Erbium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f12 6s2
Erbium atomic radius is 226 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.
226 pm (2.26 Å)
|Atomic Volume||18.4490403706 cm3|
|Van der Waals Radius||N/A|
|Neutron Cross Section||165 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Erbium is 50 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Erbium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Erbium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||18.4490403706 cm3|
|Young Modulus||70 GPa|
|Shear Modulus||28 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||44 GPa|
|Vickers Hardness||589 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||814 MPa|
Erbium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Erbium
|Electrical Conductivity||1.2×106 S/m|
|Resistivity||8.6×10-7 m Ω|
|Thermal Conductivity||15 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||0.0000122 K-1|
|Curie Point||32 K|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||3.77×10-6|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||6.30566×10-7|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.0341788|
|Speed of Sound||2830 m/s|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Erbium
|Melting Point||1770 K (1497 °C)|
|Boiling Point||3141 K (2868 °C)|
|Heat of Fusion||19.9 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||285 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Erbium has 6 stable isotope - 162Er, 164Er, 166Er, 167Er, 168Er, 170Er.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||N/A|
|NFPA Fire Rating||N/A|
|NFPA Health Rating||N/A|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||N/A|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7440-52-0|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|