Cl Chlorine – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

17
Cl
Chlorine

Chlorine

Element 17 of Periodic table is Chlorine with atomic number 17, atomic weight 35.453. Chlorine, symbol Cl, has a Base Centered Orthorhombic structure and Yellow color. Chlorine is a halogens element. Trivial name of Chlorine is halogens*. Know everything about Chlorine Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

17 Cl - Chlorine | SchoolMyKids

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17. It also has a relative atomic mass of 35.5. Chlorine is in the halogen group (17) and is the second lightest halogen following fluorine.

How to Locate Chlorine on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 17 to find Chlorine on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Chlorine on periodic table look for cross section of group 17 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Chlorine History

The element Chlorine was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in year 1774 in Sweden . Chlorine derived its name from the Greek word chloros, meaning 'greenish yellow'

Chlorine Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Chlorine in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1e-06
Abundance in Sun 8e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.00037
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00017
Abundance in Oceans 0.02
Abundance in Humans 0.0012

Crystal Structure of Chlorine

The solid state structure of Chlorine is Base Centered Orthorhombic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
622.35 445.61 817.85 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Cmca 17 Cl Chlorine - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 64
Crystal Structure Base Centered Orthorhombic

Chlorine Atomic and Orbital Properties

Chlorine atoms have 17 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 7] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2.

Atomic Number 17
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 17
Number of Protons 17
Mass Number 35
Number of Neutrons 18
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 7]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p5
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p5
Oxidation State -1
1;2;3;4;5;6;7
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P3/2

Shell Structure of Chlorine - Electrons per energy level

17 Cl Chlorine - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 5

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Chlorine - neutral Chlorine atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Chlorine atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p5. The portion of Chlorine configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p5, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Chlorine

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Chlorine atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5

Atomic Structure of Chlorine

Chlorine atomic radius is 79 pm, while it's covalent radius is 99 pm.

Atomic Radius

79 pm (0.79 Å)

Atomic Volume 11.030802738 cm3
Covalent Radius 99 pm (0.99 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 175 pm
Neutron Cross Section 35.3 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Chlorine

Atomic Spectrum of Chlorine | SchoolMyKids

Chlorine Chemical Properties: Chlorine Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Chlorine is 349 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 3.16
ElectronAffinity 349 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Chlorine

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Chlorine

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1251.2
2 2298
3 3822
4 5158.6
5 6542
6 9362
7 11018
8 33604
9 3.86×104
10 43961

Chlorine Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Chlorine Physical Properties

Density 3.214 g/l
Molar Volume 11.030802738 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 1.1 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Chlorine - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Chlorine Electrical Properties

Chlorine is Insulator of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Chlorine

Electrical Conductivity 0.01 S/m
Resistivity 100 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Chlorine Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.0089 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Chlorine Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -7.2×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -5.11×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.31×10-8

Optical Properties of Chlorine

Refractive Index 1.000773

Acoustic Properties of Chlorine

Speed of Sound 206 m/s

Chlorine Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Chlorine

Melting Point 171.6 K (-101.5 °C)
Boiling Point 239.11 K (-34.04 °C)
Critical Temperature 416.9 K
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Chlorine

Heat of Fusion 3.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 10.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Chlorine Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Chlorine

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Chlorine has 2 stable isotope - 35Cl, 37Cl.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
28Cl  
29Cl  
30Cl  
31Cl  
32Cl  
33Cl  
34Cl  
35Cl   75.78% Stable N/A
36Cl  
37Cl   24.22% Stable N/A
38Cl  
39Cl  
40Cl  
41Cl  
42Cl  
43Cl  
44Cl  
45Cl  
46Cl  
47Cl  
48Cl  
49Cl  
50Cl  
51Cl  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7782-50-5
RTECS Number RTECSFO2100000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7782-50-5
CID Number CID24526
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSFO2100000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide