Ce Cerium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

58
Ce
Cerium

Cerium

Element 58 of Periodic table is Cerium with atomic number 58, atomic weight 140.116. Cerium, symbol Ce, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Cerium is a lanthanide element. Know everything about Cerium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

58 Ce - Cerium | SchoolMyKids

Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58. It is a soft, silvery, ductile metal which easily oxidizes in air. Cerium was named after the dwarf planet Ceres (itself named after the Roman goddess of agriculture).

How to Locate Cerium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 58 to find Cerium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Cerium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Cerium History

The element Cerium was discovered by Martin Heinrich Klaproth in year 1803 in Germany and Sweden . Cerium derived its name from the then recently discovered asteroid Ceres, considered a planet at the time

Cerium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Cerium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 4×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 7.5e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 6e-05
Abundance in Oceans 1.2×10-10%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Cerium

The solid state structure of Cerium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
362 362 599 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 58 Ce Cerium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Cerium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Cerium atoms have 58 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1G4.

Atomic Number 58
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 58
Number of Protons 58
Mass Number 140
Number of Neutrons 82
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 19, 9, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2
Valence Electrons 4f1 5d1 6s2
Oxidation State 2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1G4

Shell Structure of Cerium - Electrons per energy level

58 Ce Cerium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 1
5 O 2 6 1
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Cerium - neutral Cerium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Cerium atom is [Xe] 4f1 5d1 6s2. The portion of Cerium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f1 5d1 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Cerium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Cerium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f1 5d1 6s2

Atomic Structure of Cerium

Cerium atomic radius is 185 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.

Atomic Radius

185 pm (1.85 Å)

Atomic Volume 20.9472267903 cm3
Covalent Radius N/A
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 0.6 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Cerium

Atomic Spectrum of Cerium | SchoolMyKids

Cerium Chemical Properties: Cerium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Cerium is 50 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.12
ElectronAffinity 50 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Cerium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Cerium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 534.4
2 1050
3 1949
4 3547
5 6325
6 7490

Cerium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Cerium Physical Properties

Density 6.689 g/cm3
Molar Volume 20.9472267903 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 34 GPa
Shear Modulus 14 GPa
Bulk Modulus 22 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.24

Hardness of Cerium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 270 MPa
Brinell Hardness 412 MPa

Cerium Electrical Properties

Cerium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Cerium

Electrical Conductivity 1.4×106 S/m
Resistivity 7.4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.022

Cerium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 11 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 6.3×10-6 K-1

Cerium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 2.2×10-7
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 3.0826×10-8
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0014716

Optical Properties of Cerium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Cerium

Speed of Sound 2.1×103 m/s

Cerium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Cerium

Melting Point 1071 K (798 °C)
Boiling Point 3633 K (3360 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.022

Enthalpies of Cerium

Heat of Fusion 5.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 350 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Cerium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Cerium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Cerium has 4 stable isotope - 136Ce, 138Ce, 140Ce, 142Ce.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
119Ce  
120Ce  
121Ce  
122Ce  
123Ce  
124Ce  
125Ce  
126Ce  
127Ce  
128Ce  
129Ce  
130Ce  
131Ce  
132Ce  
133Ce  
134Ce  
135Ce  
136Ce   0.185% Stable N/A
137Ce  
138Ce   0.251% Stable N/A
139Ce  
140Ce   88.45% Stable N/A
141Ce  
142Ce   11.114% Stable N/A
143Ce  
144Ce  
145Ce  
146Ce  
147Ce  
148Ce  
149Ce  
150Ce  
151Ce  
152Ce  
153Ce  
154Ce  
155Ce  
156Ce  
157Ce  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-45-1
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 1333
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 3
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-45-1
CID Number CID23974
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide