Ba Barium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

56
Ba
Barium

Barium

Element 56 of Periodic table is Barium with atomic number 56, atomic weight 137.327. Barium, symbol Ba, has a Body Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Barium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Barium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Barium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

56 Ba - Barium | SchoolMyKids

Barium is a chemical element with symbol Ba and atomic number 56. It is the fifth element in Group 2, a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. Because of its high chemical reactivity barium is never found in nature as a free element.

How to Locate Barium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 56 to find Barium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Barium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Barium History

The element Barium was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in year 1808 in United Kingdom . Barium derived its name from the Greek barys, meaning 'heavy'

Barium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Barium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 2.7e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00034
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 3e-07

Crystal Structure of Barium

The solid state structure of Barium is Body Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
502.8 502.8 502.8 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Im_ 3m 56 Ba Barium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 229
Crystal Structure Body Centered Cubic

Barium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Barium atoms have 56 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 56
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 56
Number of Protons 56
Mass Number 137
Number of Neutrons 81
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 8, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 6s2
Valence Electrons 6s2
Oxidation State 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Barium - Electrons per energy level

56 Ba Barium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 2 6
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Barium - neutral Barium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Barium atom is [Xe] 6s2. The portion of Barium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Barium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Barium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 6s2

Atomic Structure of Barium

Barium atomic radius is 253 pm, while it's covalent radius is 198 pm.

Atomic Radius

253 pm (2.53 Å)

Atomic Volume 39.1245014245 cm3
Covalent Radius 198 pm (1.98 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 1.3 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Barium

Atomic Spectrum of Barium | SchoolMyKids

Barium Chemical Properties: Barium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Barium is 13.95 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 0.89
ElectronAffinity 13.95 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Barium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Barium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 502.9
2 965.2
3 3.6×103

Barium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Barium Physical Properties

Density 3.51 g/cm3
Molar Volume 39.1245014245 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 13 GPa
Shear Modulus 4.9 GPa
Bulk Modulus 9.6 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Barium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.25 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Barium Electrical Properties

Barium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Barium

Electrical Conductivity 2.9×106 S/m
Resistivity 3.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Barium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 18 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000206 K-1

Barium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.13×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.552×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 3.966e-05

Optical Properties of Barium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Barium

Speed of Sound 1620 m/s

Barium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Barium

Melting Point 1×103 K (727 °C)
Boiling Point 2143 K (1870 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Barium

Heat of Fusion 8 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 140 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Barium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Barium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Barium has 7 stable isotope - 130Ba, 132Ba, 134Ba, 135Ba, 136Ba, 137Ba, 138Ba.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
114Ba  
115Ba  
116Ba  
117Ba  
118Ba  
119Ba  
120Ba  
121Ba  
122Ba  
123Ba  
124Ba  
125Ba  
126Ba  
127Ba  
128Ba  
129Ba  
130Ba   0.106% Stable N/A
131Ba  
132Ba   0.101% Stable N/A
133Ba  
134Ba   2.417% Stable N/A
135Ba   6.592% Stable N/A
136Ba   7.854% Stable N/A
137Ba   11.232% Stable N/A
138Ba   71.698% Stable N/A
139Ba  
140Ba  
141Ba  
142Ba  
143Ba  
144Ba  
145Ba  
146Ba  
147Ba  
148Ba  
149Ba  
150Ba  
151Ba  
152Ba  
153Ba  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-39-3
RTECS Number RTECSCQ8370000
DOT Hazard Class 4.3
DOT Numbers 1400
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards Water Reactive
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 2
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-39-3
CID Number CID5355457
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSCQ8370000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide