B Boron – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

5
B
Boron

Boron

Element 5 of Periodic table is Boron with atomic number 5, atomic weight 10.811. Boron, symbol B, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Black color. Boron is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Boron is triels, icosagens. Know everything about Boron Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

5 B - Boron | SchoolMyKids

Boron is a metalloid chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5. Produced entirely by cosmic ray spallation and supernovae and not by stellar nucleosynthesis, it is a low-abundance element in both the Solar system and the Earth's crust. Boron is concentrated on Earth by the water-solubility of its more common naturally occurring compounds, the borate minerals.

How to Locate Boron on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 5 to find Boron on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Boron on periodic table look for cross section of group 13 and period 2 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Boron History

The element Boron was discovered by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in year 1808 in France and United Kingdom . Boron derived its name from borax, a mineral

Boron Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Boron in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.6e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 8.6e-06
Abundance in Oceans 4.4e-06
Abundance in Humans 7e-07

Crystal Structure of Boron

The solid state structure of Boron is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
506 506 506 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
1.01334 1.01334 1.01334

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name R_ 3m 5 B Boron - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 166
Crystal Structure Simple Trigonal

Boron Atomic and Orbital Properties

Boron atoms have 5 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 3] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2.

Atomic Number 5
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 5
Number of Protons 5
Mass Number 11
Number of Neutrons 6
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 3]
Electron Configuration [He] 2s2 2p1
Valence Electrons 2s2 2p1
Oxidation State -5;-1
1;2;3
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2P1/2

Shell Structure of Boron - Electrons per energy level

5 B Boron - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Boron - neutral Boron atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Boron atom is [He] 2s2 2p1. The portion of Boron configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [He]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 2s2 2p1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Boron

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Boron atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p1

Atomic Structure of Boron

Boron atomic radius is 87 pm, while it's covalent radius is 82 pm.

Atomic Radius

87 pm (0.87 Å)

Atomic Volume 4.39471544715 cm3
Covalent Radius 82 pm (0.82 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 755 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Boron

Atomic Spectrum of Boron | SchoolMyKids

Boron Chemical Properties: Boron Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Boron is 26.7 kJ/mol

Valence 3
Electronegativity 2.04
ElectronAffinity 26.7 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Boron

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Boron

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 800.6
2 2427.1
3 3659.7
4 25025.8
5 32826.7

Boron Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Boron Physical Properties

Density 2.46 g/cm3
Molar Volume 4.39471544715 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 320 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Boron - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 9.3 MPa
Vickers Hardness 4.9×104 MPa
Brinell Hardness N/A

Boron Electrical Properties

Boron is Insulator of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Boron

Electrical Conductivity 0.0001 S/m
Resistivity 10000 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Boron Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 27 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 6×10-6 K-1

Boron Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -8.7×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -9.41×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.14e-05

Optical Properties of Boron

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Boron

Speed of Sound 1.62×104 m/s

Boron Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Boron

Melting Point 2348 K (2075 °C)
Boiling Point 4273 K (4000 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Boron

Heat of Fusion 50 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 507 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Boron Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Boron

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Boron has 2 stable isotope - 10B, 11B.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
6B  
7B  
8B  
9B  
10B   19.9% Stable N/A
11B   80.1% Stable N/A
12B  
13B  
14B  
15B  
16B  
17B  
18B  
19B  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-42-8
RTECS Number RTECSED7350000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 3
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-42-8
CID Number CID5462311
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSED7350000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide