Au Gold – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

79
Au
Gold

Gold

Element 79 of Periodic table is Gold with atomic number 79, atomic weight 196.96655. Gold, symbol Au, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gold color. Gold is a transition metal element. Trivial name of Gold is coinage metals. Know everything about Gold Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

79 Au - Gold | SchoolMyKids

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from Latin:aurum) and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly reddish yellow, dense, soft, malleable and ductile metal. Chemically, gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element.

How to Locate Gold on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 79 to find Gold on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Gold on periodic table look for cross section of group 11 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Gold History

The element Gold was discovered by Middle East in year 2500 BC in unknown place . Gold derived its name from English word (aurum in Latin)

Gold Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Gold in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.7e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 3.1×10-7%
Abundance in Oceans 5×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 1e-07

Crystal Structure of Gold

The solid state structure of Gold is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
407.82 407.82 407.82 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 79 Au Gold - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Gold Atomic and Orbital Properties

Gold atoms have 79 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2.

Atomic Number 79
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 79
Number of Protons 79
Mass Number 197
Number of Neutrons 118
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1
Valence Electrons 5d10 6s1
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1
1;2;3;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 2S1/2

Shell Structure of Gold - Electrons per energy level

79 Au Gold - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 10
6 P 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Gold - neutral Gold atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Gold atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s1. The portion of Gold configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Gold

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Gold atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s1

Atomic Structure of Gold

Gold atomic radius is 174 pm, while it's covalent radius is 144 pm.

Atomic Radius

174 pm (1.74 Å)

Atomic Volume 10.2055207254 cm3
Covalent Radius 144 pm (1.44 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 166 pm
Neutron Cross Section 98.7 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Gold

Atomic Spectrum of Gold | SchoolMyKids

Gold Chemical Properties: Gold Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Gold is 222.8 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.54
ElectronAffinity 222.8 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Gold

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Gold

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 890.1
2 1980

Gold Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Gold Physical Properties

Density 19.3 g/cm3
Molar Volume 10.2055207254 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 78 GPa
Shear Modulus 27 GPa
Bulk Modulus 220 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.44

Hardness of Gold - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 216 MPa
Brinell Hardness 2450 MPa

Gold Electrical Properties

Gold is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Gold

Electrical Conductivity 4.5×107 S/m
Resistivity 2.2×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Gold Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 320 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000142 K-1

Gold Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.78×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.51×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.44e-05

Optical Properties of Gold

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Gold

Speed of Sound 1740 m/s

Gold Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Gold

Melting Point 1337.33 K (1064.18 °C)
Boiling Point 3129 K (2856 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Gold

Heat of Fusion 12.5 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 330 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Gold Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Gold

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Gold has 1 stable isotope - 197Au.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
169Au  
170Au  
171Au  
172Au  
173Au  
174Au  
175Au  
176Au  
177Au  
178Au  
179Au  
180Au  
181Au  
182Au  
183Au  
184Au  
185Au  
186Au  
187Au  
188Au  
189Au  
190Au  
191Au  
192Au  
193Au  
194Au  
195Au  
196Au  
197Au   100% Stable N/A
198Au  
199Au  
200Au  
201Au  
202Au  
203Au  
204Au  
205Au  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-57-5
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers N/A
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-57-5
CID Number CID23985
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSMD5070000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide