Th Thorium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

90
Th
Thorium

Thorium

Element 90 of Periodic table is Thorium with atomic number 90, atomic weight 232.0381. Thorium, symbol Th, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Thorium is a actinide element. Know everything about Thorium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

90 Th - Thorium | SchoolMyKids

Thorium is a chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. A radioactive actinide metal, thorium is one of only two significantly radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as a primordial element (the other being uranium). It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian Reverend and amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder.

How to Locate Thorium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 90 to find Thorium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Thorium on periodic table look for cross section of group N/A and period 7 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Thorium History

The element Thorium was discovered by Jöns Jakob Berzelius in year 1829 in Sweden . Thorium derived its name from Thor, the Scandinavian god of thunder

Thorium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Thorium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 4×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 3×10-8%
Abundance in Meteorites 3.9×10-6%
Abundance in Earth's Crust 6e-06
Abundance in Oceans 4×10-12%
Abundance in Humans None

Crystal Structure of Thorium

The solid state structure of Thorium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
508.42 508.42 508.42 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 90 Th Thorium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Thorium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Thorium atoms have 90 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2.

Atomic Number 90
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 90
Number of Protons 90
Mass Number 232
Number of Neutrons 142
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 10, 2]
Electron Configuration [Rn] 6d2 7s2
Valence Electrons 6d2 7s2
Oxidation State 1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F2

Shell Structure of Thorium - Electrons per energy level

90 Th Thorium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 10
6 P 2 6 2
7 Q 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Thorium - neutral Thorium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Thorium atom is [Rn] 6d2 7s2. The portion of Thorium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Rn]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 6d2 7s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Thorium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Thorium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p6 6d2 7s2

Atomic Structure of Thorium

Thorium atomic radius is 180 pm, while it's covalent radius is N/A.

Atomic Radius

180 pm (1.8 Å)

Atomic Volume 19.7917178437 cm3
Covalent Radius N/A
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 7.4 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Thorium

Atomic Spectrum of Thorium | SchoolMyKids

Thorium Chemical Properties: Thorium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Thorium is N/A

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.3
ElectronAffinity N/A

Ionization Energy of Thorium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Thorium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 587
2 1110
3 1930
4 2780

Thorium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Thorium Physical Properties

Density 11.724 g/cm3
Molar Volume 19.7917178437 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 79 GPa
Shear Modulus 31 GPa
Bulk Modulus 54 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.27

Hardness of Thorium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 3 MPa
Vickers Hardness 350 MPa
Brinell Hardness 400 MPa

Thorium Electrical Properties

Thorium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Thorium

Electrical Conductivity 6.7×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.5×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 1.38

Thorium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 54 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.000011 K-1

Thorium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 7.2×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.7×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 8.4e-05

Optical Properties of Thorium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Thorium

Speed of Sound 2490 m/s

Thorium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Thorium

Melting Point 2023 K (1750 °C)
Boiling Point 5093 K (4820 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 1.38

Enthalpies of Thorium

Heat of Fusion 16 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 530 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Thorium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Thorium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Thorium has 1 stable isotope - 232Th.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
209Th  
210Th  
211Th  
212Th  
213Th  
214Th  
215Th  
216Th  
217Th  
218Th  
219Th  
220Th  
221Th  
222Th  
223Th  
224Th  
225Th  
226Th  
227Th  
228Th  
229Th  
230Th  
231Th  
232Th   100% Stable N/A
233Th  
234Th  
235Th  
236Th  
237Th  
238Th  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-29-1
RTECS Number RTECSXO6400000
DOT Hazard Class 7
DOT Numbers 2975
EU Number EU231-139-7
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point 130 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-29-1
CID Number CID23960
Gmelin Number Gmelin16314
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSXO6400000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide