Si Silicon – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

14
Si
Silicon

Silicon

Element 14 of Periodic table is Silicon with atomic number 14, atomic weight 28.0855. Silicon, symbol Si, has a Tetrahedral Packing structure and Gray color. Silicon is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Silicon Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

14 Si - Silicon | SchoolMyKids

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery.

How to Locate Silicon on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 14 to find Silicon on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Silicon on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Silicon History

The element Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year 1824 in Sweden . Silicon derived its name from the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium)

Silicon Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Silicon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.0007
Abundance in Sun 0.0009
Abundance in Meteorites 0.14
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.27
Abundance in Oceans 1e-06
Abundance in Humans 0.00026

Crystal Structure of Silicon

The solid state structure of Silicon is Tetrahedral Packing.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
543.09 543.09 543.09 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fd_ 3m 14 Si Silicon - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 227
Crystal Structure Tetrahedral Packing

Silicon Atomic and Orbital Properties

Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number 14
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 14
Number of Protons 14
Mass Number 28
Number of Neutrons 14
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 4]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p2
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p2
Oxidation State -4;-3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell Structure of Silicon - Electrons per energy level

14 Si Silicon - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Silicon - neutral Silicon atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silicon atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p2. The portion of Silicon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Silicon

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2

Atomic Structure of Silicon

Silicon atomic radius is 111 pm, while it's covalent radius is 111 pm.

Atomic Radius

111 pm (1.11 Å)

Atomic Volume 12.0538626609 cm3
Covalent Radius 111 pm (1.11 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 210 pm
Neutron Cross Section 171 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Silicon

Atomic Spectrum of Silicon | SchoolMyKids

Silicon Chemical Properties: Silicon Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Silicon is 133.6 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 1.9
ElectronAffinity 133.6 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Silicon

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silicon

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 786.5
2 1577.1
3 3231.6
4 4355.5
5 16091
6 19805
7 23780
8 29287
9 33878
10 38726

Silicon Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Silicon Physical Properties

Density 2.33 g/cm3
Molar Volume 12.0538626609 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 47 GPa
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 100 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Silicon - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Silicon Electrical Properties

Silicon is Semiconductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Silicon

Electrical Conductivity 1×103 S/m
Resistivity 0.001 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Silicon Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 150 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 2.6×10-6 K-1

Silicon Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.6×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -4.49×10-11
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -3.73×10-6

Optical Properties of Silicon

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Silicon

Speed of Sound 2.2×103 m/s

Silicon Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silicon

Melting Point 1687 K (1414 °C)
Boiling Point 3173 K (2.9×103 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Silicon

Heat of Fusion 50.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 359 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion -9055 J/(kg K)

Silicon Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Silicon

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Silicon has 3 stable isotope - 28Si, 29Si, 30Si.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
22Si  
23Si  
24Si  
25Si  
26Si  
27Si  
28Si   92.2297% Stable N/A
29Si   4.6832% Stable N/A
30Si   3.0872% Stable N/A
31Si  
32Si  
33Si  
34Si  
35Si  
36Si  
37Si  
38Si  
39Si  
40Si  
41Si  
42Si  
43Si  
44Si  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-21-3
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 1346
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point 150 °C
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-21-3
CID Number CID5461123
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVW0400000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide