Element 14 of Periodic table is
Silicon with atomic number 14,
atomic weight 28.0855.
Silicon, symbol Si, has a
Tetrahedral Packing structure and Gray color.
Silicon is a metalloid element.
Trivial name of Silicon is tetrels, crystallogens.
Know everything about Silicon Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical
Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14. It is a tetravalent metalloid, more reactive than germanium, the metalloid directly below it in the table. Controversy about silicon's character dates to its discovery.
Read key information and facts about element Silicon
Explore our interactive periodic table
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of
The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and
ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number
14 to find Silicon on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column)
and period number (row). To locate Silicon on periodic
table look for cross section of group 14 and period
3 in the modern periodic table.
Interactive Periodic Table to Understand
and Learn Cool Trends
The element Silicon was discovered by Jöns Jacob Berzelius in year
1824 in Sweden
derived its name from the Latin silex, 'flint' (originally silicium)
The table below shows the abundance of Silicon in Universe, Sun, Meteorites,
Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
The solid state structure of Silicon is Tetrahedral Packing.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in
dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell
Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions (
xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible
symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups
(219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
Silicon atoms have 14 electrons and
the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.
Shell Structure of Silicon - Electrons per energy
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Silicon atom is
[Ne] 3s2 3p2.
The portion of Silicon configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of
the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this
notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is
the Valence electrons 3s2 3p2, electrons in
the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Silicon atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2
Silicon atomic radius is 111 pm, while it's covalent radius is 111 pm.
The electron affinity of Silicon is 133.6 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Silicon
Refer to below table for Silicon Physical Properties
Silicon is Semiconductor of electricity. Refer to
below for the Electrical properties of Silicon
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Silicon
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Silicon has
3 stable isotope -
28Si, 29Si, 30Si.
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases