Sb Antimony – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

51
Sb
Antimony

Antimony

Element 51 of Periodic table is Antimony with atomic number 51, atomic weight 121.76. Antimony, symbol Sb, has a Simple Trigonal structure and Silver color. Antimony is a metalloid element. Trivial name of Antimony is pentels, pnictogens*. Know everything about Antimony Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

51 Sb - Antimony | SchoolMyKids

Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from Latin:stibium) and atomic number 51. A lustrous gray metalloid, it is found in nature mainly as the sulfide mineral stibnite (Sb2S3). Antimony compounds have been known since ancient times and were used for cosmetics; metallic antimony was also known, but it was erroneously identified as lead upon its discovery.

How to Locate Antimony on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 51 to find Antimony on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Antimony on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Antimony History

The element Antimony was discovered by unknown in year 3000 BC in unknown place . Antimony derived its name from the Greek anti, 'against', and monos, 'alone' (stibium in Latin)

Antimony Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Antimony in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 4×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.2e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 2e-07
Abundance in Oceans 2×10-8%
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Antimony

The solid state structure of Antimony is Simple Trigonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
430.7 430.7 1127.3 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name R_ 3m 51 Sb Antimony - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 166
Crystal Structure Simple Trigonal

Antimony Atomic and Orbital Properties

Antimony atoms have 51 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 18, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number 51
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 51
Number of Protons 51
Mass Number 122
Number of Neutrons 71
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 18, 5]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3
Valence Electrons 5s2 5p3
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2

Shell Structure of Antimony - Electrons per energy level

51 Sb Antimony - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10
5 O 2 3

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Antimony - neutral Antimony atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Antimony atom is [Kr] 4d10 5s2 5p3. The portion of Antimony configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d10 5s2 5p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Antimony

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Antimony atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p3

Atomic Structure of Antimony

Antimony atomic radius is 133 pm, while it's covalent radius is 138 pm.

Atomic Radius

133 pm (1.33 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.1812751978 cm3
Covalent Radius 138 pm (1.38 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 5.4 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Antimony

Atomic Spectrum of Antimony | SchoolMyKids

Antimony Chemical Properties: Antimony Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Antimony is 103.2 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.05
ElectronAffinity 103.2 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Antimony

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Antimony

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 834
2 1594.9
3 2440
4 4260
5 5.4×103
6 1.04×104

Antimony Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Antimony Physical Properties

Density 6.697 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.1812751978 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 55 GPa
Shear Modulus 20 GPa
Bulk Modulus 42 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Antimony - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 3 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 294 MPa

Antimony Electrical Properties

Antimony is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Antimony

Electrical Conductivity 2.5×106 S/m
Resistivity 4×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Antimony Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 24 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.000011 K-1

Antimony Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.09×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -1.327×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -7.3e-05

Optical Properties of Antimony

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Antimony

Speed of Sound 3420 m/s

Antimony Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Antimony

Melting Point 903.78 K (630.63 °C)
Boiling Point 1860 K (1587 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Antimony

Heat of Fusion 19.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 68 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion {"N/A"} J/(kg K)

Antimony Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Antimony

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Antimony has 2 stable isotope - 121Sb, 123Sb.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
103Sb  
104Sb  
105Sb  
106Sb  
107Sb  
108Sb  
109Sb  
110Sb  
111Sb  
112Sb  
113Sb  
114Sb  
115Sb  
116Sb  
117Sb  
118Sb  
119Sb  
120Sb  
121Sb   57.21% Stable N/A
122Sb  
123Sb   42.79% Stable N/A
124Sb  
125Sb  
126Sb  
127Sb  
128Sb  
129Sb  
130Sb  
131Sb  
132Sb  
133Sb  
134Sb  
135Sb  
136Sb  
137Sb  
138Sb  
139Sb  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-36-0
RTECS Number {RTECSCC4025000}
DOT Hazard Class {N/A}
DOT Numbers "N/A"
EU Number {N/A}
NFPA Fire Rating {N/A}
NFPA Hazards N/ A
NFPA Health Rating {N/A}
NFPA Reactivity Rating {N/A}
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-36-0
CID Number {CID5354495}
Gmelin Number {N/A}
NSC Number {N/A}
RTECS Number {RTECSCC4025000}

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide