Rh Rhodium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

45
Rh
Rhodium

Rhodium

Element 45 of Periodic table is Rhodium with atomic number 45, atomic weight 102.9055. Rhodium, symbol Rh, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Silver color. Rhodium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Rhodium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

45 Rh - Rhodium | SchoolMyKids

Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45. It is a rare, silvery-white, hard, and chemically inert transition metal. It is a member of the platinum group.

How to Locate Rhodium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 45 to find Rhodium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Rhodium on periodic table look for cross section of group 9 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Rhodium History

The element Rhodium was discovered by William Hyde Wollaston in year 1803 in United Kingdom . Rhodium derived its name from the Greek rhodos, meaning 'rose coloured'

Rhodium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Rhodium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6×10-8%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.8e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 7×10-8%
Abundance in Oceans N/A
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Rhodium

The solid state structure of Rhodium is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
380.34 380.34 380.34 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 45 Rh Rhodium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Rhodium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Rhodium atoms have 45 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 16, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F9/2.

Atomic Number 45
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 45
Number of Protons 45
Mass Number 103
Number of Neutrons 58
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 16, 1]
Electron Configuration [Kr] 4d8 5s1
Valence Electrons 4d8 5s1
Oxidation State -3;-1
1;2;3;4;5;6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4F9/2

Shell Structure of Rhodium - Electrons per energy level

45 Rh Rhodium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 8
5 O 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Rhodium - neutral Rhodium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Rhodium atom is [Kr] 4d8 5s1. The portion of Rhodium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d8 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Rhodium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Rhodium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d8 5s1

Atomic Structure of Rhodium

Rhodium atomic radius is 173 pm, while it's covalent radius is 135 pm.

Atomic Radius

173 pm (1.73 Å)

Atomic Volume 8.26550200803 cm3
Covalent Radius 135 pm (1.35 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 145 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Rhodium

Atomic Spectrum of Rhodium | SchoolMyKids

Rhodium Chemical Properties: Rhodium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Rhodium is 109.7 kJ/mol

Valence 6
Electronegativity 2.28
ElectronAffinity 109.7 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Rhodium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Rhodium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 719.7
2 1740
3 2997

Rhodium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Rhodium Physical Properties

Density 12.45 g/cm3
Molar Volume 8.26550200803 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 275 GPa
Shear Modulus 150 GPa
Bulk Modulus 380 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.26

Hardness of Rhodium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 6 MPa
Vickers Hardness 1246 MPa
Brinell Hardness 1.1×103 MPa

Rhodium Electrical Properties

Rhodium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Rhodium

Electrical Conductivity 2.3×107 S/m
Resistivity 4.3×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Rhodium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 150 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.2×10-6 K-1

Rhodium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.36×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.4×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0001693

Optical Properties of Rhodium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Rhodium

Speed of Sound 4.7×103 m/s

Rhodium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Rhodium

Melting Point 2237 K (1964 °C)
Boiling Point 3968 K (3695 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Rhodium

Heat of Fusion 21.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 495 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Rhodium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Rhodium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Rhodium has 1 stable isotope - 103Rh.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
89Rh  
90Rh  
91Rh  
92Rh  
93Rh  
94Rh  
95Rh  
96Rh  
97Rh  
98Rh  
99Rh  
100Rh  
101Rh  
102Rh  
103Rh   100% Stable N/A
104Rh  
105Rh  
106Rh  
107Rh  
108Rh  
109Rh  
110Rh  
111Rh  
112Rh  
113Rh  
114Rh  
115Rh  
116Rh  
117Rh  
118Rh  
119Rh  
120Rh  
121Rh  
122Rh  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-16-6
RTECS Number RTECSVI9069000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating N/A
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating N/A
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-16-6
CID Number CID23948
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSVI9069000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide