Pt Platinum – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

78
Pt
Platinum

Platinum

Element 78 of Periodic table is Platinum with atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.078. Platinum, symbol Pt, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Platinum is a transition metal element. Know everything about Platinum Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

78 Pt - Platinum | SchoolMyKids

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, gray-white transition metal. Its name is derived from the Spanish term platina, which is literally translated into "little silver".

How to Locate Platinum on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 78 to find Platinum on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Platinum on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Platinum History

The element Platinum was discovered by Antonio de Ulloa in year 1735 in Peru . Platinum derived its name from the Spanish platina, meaning 'little silver'

Platinum Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Platinum in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 5×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 9×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 9.8e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 3.7×10-6%
Abundance in Oceans N/A
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Platinum

The solid state structure of Platinum is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
392.42 392.42 392.42 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 78 Pt Platinum - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Platinum Atomic and Orbital Properties

Platinum atoms have 78 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3D3.

Atomic Number 78
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 78
Number of Protons 78
Mass Number 195
Number of Neutrons 117
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1
Valence Electrons 5d9 6s1
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5;6
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3D3

Shell Structure of Platinum - Electrons per energy level

78 Pt Platinum - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 9
6 P 1

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Platinum - neutral Platinum atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Platinum atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d9 6s1. The portion of Platinum configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d9 6s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Platinum

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Platinum atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d9 6s1

Atomic Structure of Platinum

Platinum atomic radius is 177 pm, while it's covalent radius is 128 pm.

Atomic Radius

177 pm (1.77 Å)

Atomic Volume 9.24978662873 cm3
Covalent Radius 128 pm (1.28 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 175 pm
Neutron Cross Section 10 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Platinum

Atomic Spectrum of Platinum | SchoolMyKids

Platinum Chemical Properties: Platinum Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Platinum is 205.3 kJ/mol

Valence 6
Electronegativity 2.28
ElectronAffinity 205.3 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Platinum

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Platinum

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 870
2 1791

Platinum Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Platinum Physical Properties

Density 21.09 g/cm3
Molar Volume 9.24978662873 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 168 GPa
Shear Modulus 61 GPa
Bulk Modulus 230 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.38

Hardness of Platinum - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 3.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness 549 MPa
Brinell Hardness 392 MPa

Platinum Electrical Properties

Platinum is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Platinum

Electrical Conductivity 9.4×106 S/m
Resistivity 1.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Platinum Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 72 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.8×10-6 K-1

Platinum Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 1.22×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 2.38×10-9
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 0.0002573

Optical Properties of Platinum

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Platinum

Speed of Sound 2680 m/s

Platinum Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Platinum

Melting Point 2041.4 K (1768.3 °C)
Boiling Point 4098 K (3825 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Platinum

Heat of Fusion 20 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 490 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Platinum Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Platinum

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Platinum has 5 stable isotope - 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt, 198Pt.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
166Pt  
167Pt  
168Pt  
169Pt  
170Pt  
171Pt  
172Pt  
173Pt  
174Pt  
175Pt  
176Pt  
177Pt  
178Pt  
179Pt  
180Pt  
181Pt  
182Pt  
183Pt  
184Pt  
185Pt  
186Pt  
187Pt  
188Pt  
189Pt  
190Pt   0.014%
191Pt  
192Pt   0.782% Stable N/A
193Pt  
194Pt   32.967% Stable N/A
195Pt   33.832% Stable N/A
196Pt   25.242% Stable N/A
197Pt  
198Pt   7.163% Stable N/A
199Pt  
200Pt  
201Pt  
202Pt  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-06-4
RTECS Number RTECSTP2160000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 2
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 1
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-06-4
CID Number CID23939
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSTP2160000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide