Pb Lead – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

82
Pb
Lead

Lead

Element 82 of Periodic table is Lead with atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.2. Lead, symbol Pb, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and SlateGray color. Lead is a post-transition metal element. Trivial name of Lead is tetrels, crystallogens. Know everything about Lead Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

82 Pb - Lead | SchoolMyKids

Lead (/lɛd/) is a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin:plumbum) and atomic number 82. Lead is a soft, malleable and heavy post-transition metal. Metallic lead has a bluish-white color after being freshly cut, but it soon tarnishes to a dull grayish color when exposed to air.

How to Locate Lead on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 82 to find Lead on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Lead on periodic table look for cross section of group 14 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Lead History

The element Lead was discovered by Middle East in year 4000 BC in unknown place . Lead derived its name from English word (plumbum in Latin)

Lead Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Lead in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 1×10-6%
Abundance in Sun 1×10-6%
Abundance in Meteorites 1.4e-06
Abundance in Earth's Crust 9.9e-06
Abundance in Oceans 3×10-9%
Abundance in Humans 1.7e-06

Crystal Structure of Lead

The solid state structure of Lead is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
495.08 495.08 495.08 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 82 Pb Lead - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Lead Atomic and Orbital Properties

Lead atoms have 82 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0.

Atomic Number 82
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 82
Number of Protons 82
Mass Number 207
Number of Neutrons 125
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 4]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2
Valence Electrons 6s2 6p2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3P0

Shell Structure of Lead - Electrons per energy level

82 Pb Lead - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 10
6 P 2 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Lead - neutral Lead atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Lead atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2. The portion of Lead configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Lead

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Lead atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p2

Atomic Structure of Lead

Lead atomic radius is 154 pm, while it's covalent radius is 147 pm.

Atomic Radius

154 pm (1.54 Å)

Atomic Volume 18.2716049383 cm3
Covalent Radius 147 pm (1.47 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 202 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.171 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Lead

Atomic Spectrum of Lead | SchoolMyKids

Lead Chemical Properties: Lead Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Lead is 35.1 kJ/mol

Valence 4
Electronegativity 2.33
ElectronAffinity 35.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Lead

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Lead

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 715.6
2 1450.5
3 3081.5
4 4083
5 6640

Lead Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Lead Physical Properties

Density 11.34 g/cm3
Molar Volume 18.2716049383 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 16 GPa
Shear Modulus 5.6 GPa
Bulk Modulus 46 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.44

Hardness of Lead - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 1.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 38.3 MPa

Lead Electrical Properties

Lead is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Lead

Electrical Conductivity 4.8×106 S/m
Resistivity 2.1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point 7.2

Lead Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 35 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000289 K-1

Lead Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.5×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.11×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -1.7e-05

Optical Properties of Lead

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Lead

Speed of Sound 1260 m/s

Lead Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Lead

Melting Point 600.61 K (327.46 °C)
Boiling Point 2022 K (1749 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 7.2

Enthalpies of Lead

Heat of Fusion 4.77 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 178 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Lead Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Lead

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Lead has 4 stable isotope - 204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb, 208Pb.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
178Pb  
179Pb  
180Pb  
181Pb  
182Pb  
183Pb  
184Pb  
185Pb  
186Pb  
187Pb  
188Pb  
189Pb  
190Pb  
191Pb  
192Pb  
193Pb  
194Pb  
195Pb  
196Pb  
197Pb  
198Pb  
199Pb  
200Pb  
201Pb  
202Pb  
203Pb  
204Pb   1.4% Stable N/A
205Pb  
206Pb   24.1% Stable N/A
207Pb   22.1% Stable N/A
208Pb   52.4% Stable N/A
209Pb  
210Pb  
211Pb  
212Pb  
213Pb  
214Pb  
215Pb  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-92-1
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000
DOT Hazard Class N/A
DOT Numbers 3077
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 0
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 0
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-92-1
CID Number CID5352425
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSOF7525000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide