P Phosphorus – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

15
P
Phosphorus

Phosphorus

Element 15 of Periodic table is Phosphorus with atomic number 15, atomic weight 30.973761. Phosphorus, symbol P, has a Simple Triclinic structure and Colorless color. Phosphorus is a other nonmetal element. Trivial name of Phosphorus is pentels, pnictogens*. Know everything about Phosphorus Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

15 P - Phosphorus | SchoolMyKids

Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms—white phosphorus and red phosphorus—but due to its high reactivity, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. Instead phosphorus-containing minerals are almost always present in their maximally oxidised state, as inorganic phosphate rocks.

How to Locate Phosphorus on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 15 to find Phosphorus on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Phosphorus on periodic table look for cross section of group 15 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Phosphorus History

The element Phosphorus was discovered by Hennig Brand in year 1669 in Germany . Phosphorus derived its name from the Greek word phoosphoros, 'carrying light'

Phosphorus Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Phosphorus in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 7e-06
Abundance in Sun 7e-06
Abundance in Meteorites 0.0011
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.00099
Abundance in Oceans 7×10-6%
Abundance in Humans 0.011

Crystal Structure of Phosphorus

The solid state structure of Phosphorus is Simple Triclinic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
1145 550.3 1126.1 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
1.25384 1.57725 1.24896

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P-1 15 P Phosphorus - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 2
Crystal Structure Simple Triclinic

Phosphorus Atomic and Orbital Properties

Phosphorus atoms have 15 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 5] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2.

Atomic Number 15
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 15
Number of Protons 15
Mass Number 31
Number of Neutrons 16
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 5]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2 3p3
Valence Electrons 3s2 3p3
Oxidation State -3;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 4S3/2

Shell Structure of Phosphorus - Electrons per energy level

15 P Phosphorus - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 3

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Phosphorus - neutral Phosphorus atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Phosphorus atom is [Ne] 3s2 3p3. The portion of Phosphorus configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2 3p3, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Phosphorus

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Phosphorus atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p3

Atomic Structure of Phosphorus

Phosphorus atomic radius is 98 pm, while it's covalent radius is 106 pm.

Atomic Radius

98 pm (0.98 Å)

Atomic Volume 16.9905436094 cm3
Covalent Radius 106 pm (1.06 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 180 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.18 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Phosphorus

Atomic Spectrum of Phosphorus | SchoolMyKids

Phosphorus Chemical Properties: Phosphorus Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Phosphorus is 72 kJ/mol

Valence 5
Electronegativity 2.19
ElectronAffinity 72 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Phosphorus

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Phosphorus

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 1011.8
2 1907
3 2914.1
4 4963.6
5 6273.9
6 21267
7 25431
8 29872
9 35905
10 40950

Phosphorus Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Phosphorus Physical Properties

Density 1.823 g/cm3
Molar Volume 16.9905436094 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus N/A
Bulk Modulus 11 GPa
Poisson Ratio N/A

Hardness of Phosphorus - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness N/A
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness N/A

Phosphorus Electrical Properties

Phosphorus is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Phosphorus

Electrical Conductivity 1×107 S/m
Resistivity 1×10-7 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Phosphorus Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 0.236 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion N/A

Phosphorus Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Diamagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility -1.13×10-8
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility -3.5×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility -2.06e-05

Optical Properties of Phosphorus

Refractive Index 1.001212

Acoustic Properties of Phosphorus

Speed of Sound N/A

Phosphorus Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Phosphorus

Melting Point 317.3 K (44.2 °C)
Boiling Point 553.6 K (280.5 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Phosphorus

Heat of Fusion 0.64 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 12.4 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion {"N/A", "N/A", "N/A", "N/A"} J/(kg K)

Phosphorus Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Phosphorus

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Phosphorus has 1 stable isotope - 31P.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
24P  
25P  
26P  
27P  
28P  
29P  
30P  
31P   100% Stable N/A
32P  
33P  
34P  
35P  
36P  
37P  
38P  
39P  
40P  
41P  
42P  
43P  
44P  
45P  
46P  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7723-14-0
RTECS Number {N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A}
DOT Hazard Class {N/A, 4.1, 4.2, N/A}
DOT Numbers "N/A", {1338}, {1381, 2447}, "N/A"
EU Number {N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NFPA Fire Rating {N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
NFPA Hazards N/ A, N/ A, N/ A, N/ A
NFPA Health Rating {N/A, 0, 4, N/A}
NFPA Reactivity Rating {N/A, 2, 2, N/A}
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7723-14-0
CID Number {CID5462309, CID5462309, CID123286, CID5460700}
Gmelin Number {N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
NSC Number {N/A, N/A, N/A, N/A}
RTECS Number {N/A, RTECSTH3495000, RTECSTH3500000, N/A}

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide