Os Osmium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

76
Os
Osmium

Osmium

Element 76 of Periodic table is Osmium with atomic number 76, atomic weight 190.23. Osmium, symbol Os, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and SlateGray color. Osmium is a transition metal element. Know everything about Osmium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

76 Os - Osmium | SchoolMyKids

Osmium (from Greek osme (ὀσμή) meaning "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76. It is a hard, brittle, bluish-white transition metal in the platinum group that is found as a trace element in alloys, mostly in platinum ores. Osmium is the densest naturally occurring element, with a density of 7004225900000000000♠22.59 g/cm3.

How to Locate Osmium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 76 to find Osmium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Osmium on periodic table look for cross section of group 8 and period 6 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Osmium History

The element Osmium was discovered by Smithson Tennant in year 1803 in United Kingdom . Osmium derived its name from the Greek osmè, meaning 'smell'

Osmium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Osmium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 3×10-7%
Abundance in Sun 2×10-7%
Abundance in Meteorites 6.6e-07
Abundance in Earth's Crust 1.8×10-7%
Abundance in Oceans N/A
Abundance in Humans N/A

Crystal Structure of Osmium

The solid state structure of Osmium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
273.44 273.44 431.73 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 76 Os Osmium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Osmium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Osmium atoms have 76 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5D4.

Atomic Number 76
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 76
Number of Protons 76
Mass Number 190
Number of Neutrons 114
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2]
Electron Configuration [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2
Valence Electrons 5d6 6s2
Oxidation State -4;-2;-1
1;2;3;4;5;6;7;8
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 5D4

Shell Structure of Osmium - Electrons per energy level

76 Os Osmium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 10
4 N 2 6 10 14
5 O 2 6 6
6 P 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Osmium - neutral Osmium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Osmium atom is [Xe] 4f14 5d6 6s2. The portion of Osmium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Xe]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4f14 5d6 6s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Osmium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Osmium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6 4f14 5d6 6s2

Atomic Structure of Osmium

Osmium atomic radius is 185 pm, while it's covalent radius is 128 pm.

Atomic Radius

185 pm (1.85 Å)

Atomic Volume 8.42098273572 cm3
Covalent Radius 128 pm (1.28 Å)
Van der Waals Radius N/A
Neutron Cross Section 15 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Osmium

Atomic Spectrum of Osmium | SchoolMyKids

Osmium Chemical Properties: Osmium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Osmium is 106.1 kJ/mol

Valence 6
Electronegativity 2.2
ElectronAffinity 106.1 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Osmium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Osmium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 840
2 1.6×103

Osmium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Osmium Physical Properties

Density 22.59 g/cm3
Molar Volume 8.42098273572 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus N/A
Shear Modulus 222 GPa
Bulk Modulus N/A
Poisson Ratio 0.25

Hardness of Osmium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 7 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 3920 MPa

Osmium Electrical Properties

Osmium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Osmium

Electrical Conductivity 1.2×107 S/m
Resistivity 8.1×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point 0.66

Osmium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 88 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 5.1×10-6 K-1

Osmium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6×10-10
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.1×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 1.4e-05

Optical Properties of Osmium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Osmium

Speed of Sound 4940 m/s

Osmium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Osmium

Melting Point 3306 K (3033 °C)
Boiling Point 5285 K (5012 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point 0.66

Enthalpies of Osmium

Heat of Fusion 31 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 630 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Osmium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Osmium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Osmium has 6 stable isotope - 184Os, 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, 192Os.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
162Os  
163Os  
164Os  
165Os  
166Os  
167Os  
168Os  
169Os  
170Os  
171Os  
172Os  
173Os  
174Os  
175Os  
176Os  
177Os  
178Os  
179Os  
180Os  
181Os  
182Os  
183Os  
184Os   0.02% Stable N/A
185Os  
186Os   1.59%
187Os   1.96% Stable N/A
188Os   13.24% Stable N/A
189Os   16.15% Stable N/A
190Os   26.26% Stable N/A
191Os  
192Os   40.78% Stable N/A
193Os  
194Os  
195Os  
196Os  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-04-2
RTECS Number RTECSRN1100000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 4
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating N/A
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-04-2
CID Number CID23937
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSRN1100000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide