Ni Nickel – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

28
Ni
Nickel

Nickel

Element 28 of Periodic table is Nickel with atomic number 28, atomic weight 58.6934. Nickel, symbol Ni, has a Face Centered Cubic structure and Gray color. Nickel is a transition metal element. Know everything about Nickel Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

28 Ni - Nickel | SchoolMyKids

Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28. It is a silvery-white lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.

How to Locate Nickel on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 28 to find Nickel on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Nickel on periodic table look for cross section of group 10 and period 4 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Nickel History

The element Nickel was discovered by Axel Fredrik Cronstedt in year 1751 in Sweden . Nickel derived its name from Swedish kopparnickel, containing the German word Nickel, 'goblin'

Nickel Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Nickel in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 6e-05
Abundance in Sun 8e-05
Abundance in Meteorites 0.013
Abundance in Earth's Crust 8.9e-05
Abundance in Oceans 2×10-7%
Abundance in Humans 1e-07

Crystal Structure of Nickel

The solid state structure of Nickel is Face Centered Cubic.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
352.4 352.4 352.4 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 π/2

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name Fm_ 3m 28 Ni Nickel - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 225
Crystal Structure Face Centered Cubic

Nickel Atomic and Orbital Properties

Nickel atoms have 28 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 16, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4.

Atomic Number 28
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 28
Number of Protons 28
Mass Number 59
Number of Neutrons 31
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 16, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ar] 3d8 4s2
Valence Electrons 3d8 4s2
Oxidation State -2;-1
1;2;3;4
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 3F4

Shell Structure of Nickel - Electrons per energy level

28 Ni Nickel - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2 6 8
4 N 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Nickel - neutral Nickel atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Nickel atom is [Ar] 3d8 4s2. The portion of Nickel configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ar]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3d8 4s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Nickel

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Nickel atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d8 4s2

Atomic Structure of Nickel

Nickel atomic radius is 149 pm, while it's covalent radius is 121 pm.

Atomic Radius

149 pm (1.49 Å)

Atomic Volume 6.58884149079 cm3
Covalent Radius 121 pm (1.21 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 163 pm
Neutron Cross Section 37.2 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Nickel

Atomic Spectrum of Nickel | SchoolMyKids

Nickel Chemical Properties: Nickel Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Nickel is 112 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.91
ElectronAffinity 112 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Nickel

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Nickel

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 737.1
2 1753
3 3395
4 5.3×103
5 7339
6 1.04×104
7 1.28×104
8 1.56×104
9 1.86×104
10 21670
11 30970
12 3.4×104
13 3.71×104
14 4.15×104
15 4.48×104
16 4.81×104
17 55101
18 58570
19 1.487×105
20 1.59×105
21 1.694×105

Nickel Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Nickel Physical Properties

Density 8.908 g/cm3
Molar Volume 6.58884149079 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 200 GPa
Shear Modulus 76 GPa
Bulk Modulus 180 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.31

Hardness of Nickel - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 4 MPa
Vickers Hardness 638 MPa
Brinell Hardness 700 MPa

Nickel Electrical Properties

Nickel is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Nickel

Electrical Conductivity 1.4×107 S/m
Resistivity 7×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Nickel Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 91 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 0.0000134 K-1

Nickel Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Ferromagnetic
Curie Point 631 K
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility N/A
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility N/A

Optical Properties of Nickel

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Nickel

Speed of Sound 4970 m/s

Nickel Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Nickel

Melting Point 1728 K (1455 °C)
Boiling Point 3186 K (2913 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Nickel

Heat of Fusion 17.2 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 378 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion N/A

Nickel Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Nickel

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Nickel has 5 stable isotope - 58Ni, 60Ni, 61Ni, 62Ni, 64Ni.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
48Ni  
49Ni  
50Ni  
51Ni  
52Ni  
53Ni  
54Ni  
55Ni  
56Ni  
57Ni  
58Ni   68.0769% Stable N/A
59Ni  
60Ni   26.2231% Stable N/A
61Ni   1.1399% Stable N/A
62Ni   3.6345% Stable N/A
63Ni  
64Ni   0.9256% Stable N/A
65Ni  
66Ni  
67Ni  
68Ni  
69Ni  
70Ni  
71Ni  
72Ni  
73Ni  
74Ni  
75Ni  
76Ni  
77Ni  
78Ni  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7440-02-0
RTECS Number RTECSQR5950000
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 3089
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 4
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 2
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition Point N/A
Flashpoint N/A

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7440-02-0
CID Number CID935
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number RTECSQR5950000

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide