Niobium, formerly columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology:Niobe, daughter of Tantalus since it is so similar to tantalum.
Read key information and facts about element Niobium
|Group in Periodic Table||5|
|Group Name||vanadium family|
|Period in Periodic Table||5|
|Block in Periodic Table||d-block|
|Electronic Configuration||[Kr] 4d4 5s1|
|Melting Point||2477 °C|
|Boiling Point||4744 °C|
|Electronic Shell Structure||[2, 8, 18, 12, 1]|
Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 41 to find Niobium on periodic table.
Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Niobium on periodic table look for cross section of group 5 and period 5 in the modern periodic table.
The element Niobium was discovered by Charles Hatchett in year 1801 in United Kingdom . Niobium derived its name from Niobe, daughter of king Tantalus from Greek mythology
The table below shows the abundance of Niobium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.
|Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)|
|Abundance in Universe||2×10-7%|
|Abundance in Sun||4×10-7%|
|Abundance in Meteorites||1.9e-07|
|Abundance in Earth's Crust||1.7e-05|
|Abundance in Oceans||1×10-10%|
|Abundance in Humans||N/A|
The solid state structure of Niobium is Body Centered Cubic.
The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.
The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)
and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).
The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.
The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.
|Space Group Name||Im_ 3m|
|Space Group Number||229|
|Crystal Structure||Body Centered Cubic|
Niobium atoms have 41 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 18, 12, 1] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 6D1/2.
|Number of Electrons (with no charge)||41|
|Number of Protons||41|
|Number of Neutrons||52|
|Shell structure (Electrons per energy level)||[2, 8, 18, 12, 1]|
|Electron Configuration||[Kr] 4d4 5s1|
|Valence Electrons||4d4 5s1|
|Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers)||6D1/2|
Shell Structure of Niobium - Electrons per energy level
The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Niobium atom is [Kr] 4d4 5s1. The portion of Niobium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Kr]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 4d4 5s1, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.
Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Niobium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration
1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d4 5s1
Niobium atomic radius is 198 pm, while it's covalent radius is 137 pm.
198 pm (1.98 Å)
|Atomic Volume||10.8408844807 cm3|
|Covalent Radius||137 pm (1.37 Å)|
|Van der Waals Radius||N/A|
|Neutron Cross Section||1.15 σa/barns|
The electron affinity of Niobium is 86.1 kJ/mol
Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Niobium
|Ionization energy number||Enthalpy - kJ/mol|
Refer to below table for Niobium Physical Properties
|Molar Volume||10.8408844807 cm3|
|Young Modulus||105 GPa|
|Shear Modulus||38 GPa|
|Bulk Modulus||170 GPa|
|Mohs Hardness||6 MPa|
|Vickers Hardness||1320 MPa|
|Brinell Hardness||736 MPa|
Niobium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Niobium
|Electrical Conductivity||6.7×106 S/m|
|Resistivity||1.5×10-7 m Ω|
|Thermal Conductivity||54 W/(m K)|
|Thermal Expansion||7.3×10-6 K-1|
|Mass Magnetic Susceptibility||2.76×10-8|
|Molar Magnetic Susceptibility||2.56×10-9|
|Volume Magnetic Susceptibility||0.000237|
|Speed of Sound||3480 m/s|
Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Niobium
|Melting Point||2750 K (2477 °C)|
|Boiling Point||5017 K (4744 °C)|
|Heat of Fusion||26.8 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Vaporization||690 kJ/mol|
|Heat of Combustion||N/A|
Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Niobium has 1 stable isotope - 93Nb.
|Isotope||Isotope Mass||% Abundance||T half||Decay Mode|
|DOT Hazard Class||N/A|
|NFPA Fire Rating||N/A|
|NFPA Health Rating||N/A|
|NFPA Reactivity Rating||N/A|
List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases
|CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS)||CAS7440-03-1|
|Alkali Metals||Alkaline Earth Metals|
|Transition Metals||Post-Transition Metals|