Mg Magnesium – Element Information, Facts, Properties, Trends,Uses, Comparison with other elements

12
Mg
Magnesium

Magnesium

Element 12 of Periodic table is Magnesium with atomic number 12, atomic weight 24.305. Magnesium, symbol Mg, has a Simple Hexagonal structure and Silver color. Magnesium is a alkaline earth metal element. Trivial name of Magnesium is alkaline earth metals*. Know everything about Magnesium Facts, Physical Properties, Chemical Properties, Electronic configuration, Atomic and Crystal Structure.

12 Mg - Magnesium | SchoolMyKids

Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12. It is a shiny gray solid which bears a close physical resemblance to the other five elements in the second column (Group 2, or alkaline earth metals) of the periodic table:they each have the same electron configuration in their outer electron shell producing a similar crystal structure. Magnesium is the ninth most abundant element in the universe.

How to Locate Magnesium on Periodic Table

Periodic table is arranged by atomic number, number of protons in the nucleus which is same as number of electrons. The atomic number increases from left to right. Periodic table starts at top left ( Atomic number 1) and ends at bottom right (atomic number 118). Therefore you can directly look for atomic number 12 to find Magnesium on periodic table.

Another way to read periodic table and locate an element is by using group number (column) and period number (row). To locate Magnesium on periodic table look for cross section of group 2 and period 3 in the modern periodic table.

Table of Contents

Magnesium History

The element Magnesium was discovered by Joseph Black in year 1755 in United Kingdom . Magnesium derived its name from Magnesia, a district of Eastern Thessaly in Greece

Magnesium Presence: Abundance in Nature and Around Us

The table below shows the abundance of Magnesium in Universe, Sun, Meteorites, Earth's Crust, Oceans and Human Body.

  Ppb by weight (1ppb =10^-7 %)
Abundance in Universe 0.0006
Abundance in Sun 0.0007
Abundance in Meteorites 0.12
Abundance in Earth's Crust 0.029
Abundance in Oceans 0.0013
Abundance in Humans 0.00027

Crystal Structure of Magnesium

The solid state structure of Magnesium is Simple Hexagonal.

The Crystal structure can be described in terms of its unit Cell. The unit Cells repeats itself in three dimensional space to form the structure.

Unit Cell Parameters

The unit cell is represented in terms of its lattice parameters, which are the lengths of the cell edges Lattice Constants (a, b and c)

a b c
320.94 320.94 521.08 pm

and the angles between them Lattice Angles (alpha, beta and gamma).

alpha beta gamma
π/2 π/2 2 π/3

The positions of the atoms inside the unit cell are described by the set of atomic positions ( xi, yi, zi) measured from a reference lattice point.

The symmetry properties of the crystal are described by the concept of space groups. All possible symmetric arrangements of particles in three-dimensional space are described by the 230 space groups (219 distinct types, or 230 if chiral copies are considered distinct.

Space Group Name P63/mmc 12 Mg Magnesium - Crystal Structure | SchoolMyKids
Space Group Number 194
Crystal Structure Simple Hexagonal

Magnesium Atomic and Orbital Properties

Magnesium atoms have 12 electrons and the electronic shell structure is [2, 8, 2] with Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0.

Atomic Number 12
Number of Electrons (with no charge) 12
Number of Protons 12
Mass Number 24
Number of Neutrons 12
Shell structure (Electrons per energy level) [2, 8, 2]
Electron Configuration [Ne] 3s2
Valence Electrons 3s2
Oxidation State 1;2
Atomic Term Symbol (Quantum Numbers) 1S0

Shell Structure of Magnesium - Electrons per energy level

12 Mg Magnesium - Electron Shell Structure | SchoolMyKids
n s p d f
1 K 2
2 L 2 6
3 M 2

Ground State Electronic Configuration of Magnesium - neutral Magnesium atom

The ground state electronic configuration of Neutral Magnesium atom is [Ne] 3s2. The portion of Magnesium configuration that is equivalent to the noble gas of the preceding period, is abbreviated as [Ne]. For atoms with many electrons, this notation can become lengthy and so an abbreviated notation is used.This is important as it is the Valence electrons 3s2, electrons in the outermost shell that determine the chemical properties of the element.

Unabbreviated electronic configuration of neutral Magnesium

Complete ground state electronic configuration for the Magnesium atom, Unabbreviated electronic configuration

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2

Atomic Structure of Magnesium

Magnesium atomic radius is 145 pm, while it's covalent radius is 130 pm.

Atomic Radius

145 pm (1.45 Å)

Atomic Volume 13.9844649022 cm3
Covalent Radius 130 pm (1.3 Å)
Van der Waals Radius 173 pm
Neutron Cross Section 0.063 σa/barns

Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium

Atomic Spectrum of Magnesium | SchoolMyKids

Magnesium Chemical Properties: Magnesium Ionization Energies and electron affinity

The electron affinity of Magnesium is 0 kJ/mol

Valence 2
Electronegativity 1.31
ElectronAffinity 0 kJ/mol

Ionization Energy of Magnesium

Refer to table below for Ionization energies of Magnesium

Ionization energy number Enthalpy - kJ/mol
1 737.7
2 1450.7
3 7732.7
4 10542.5
5 13630
6 18020
7 21711
8 25661
9 31653
10 35458

Magnesium Physical Properties

Refer to below table for Magnesium Physical Properties

Density 1.738 g/cm3
Molar Volume 13.9844649022 cm3

Elastic Properties

Young Modulus 45 GPa
Shear Modulus 17 GPa
Bulk Modulus 45 GPa
Poisson Ratio 0.29

Hardness of Magnesium - Tests to Measure of Hardness of Element

Mohs Hardness 2.5 MPa
Vickers Hardness N/A
Brinell Hardness 260 MPa

Magnesium Electrical Properties

Magnesium is Conductor of electricity. Refer to table below for the Electrical properties of Magnesium

Electrical Conductivity 2.3×107 S/m
Resistivity 4.4×10-8 m Ω
Superconducting Point N/A

Magnesium Heat and Conduction Properties

Thermal Conductivity 160 W/(m K)
Thermal Expansion 8.2×10-6 K-1

Magnesium Magnetic Properties

Magnetic Type Paramagnetic
Curie Point N/A
Mass Magnetic Susceptibility 6.9×10-9
Molar Magnetic Susceptibility 1.68×10-10
Volume Magnetic Susceptibility 1.2e-05

Optical Properties of Magnesium

Refractive Index N/A

Acoustic Properties of Magnesium

Speed of Sound 4602 m/s

Magnesium Thermal Properties - Enthalpies and thermodynamics

Refer to table below for Thermal properties of Magnesium

Melting Point 923 K (650 °C)
Boiling Point 1363 K (1090 °C)
Critical Temperature N/A
Superconducting Point N/A

Enthalpies of Magnesium

Heat of Fusion 8.7 kJ/mol
Heat of Vaporization 128 kJ/mol
Heat of Combustion -668 J/(kg K)

Magnesium Isotopes - Nuclear Properties of Magnesium

Isotopes of rhodium. Naturally occurring Magnesium has 3 stable isotope - 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg.

Isotope Isotope Mass % Abundance T half Decay Mode
19Mg  
20Mg  
21Mg  
22Mg  
23Mg  
24Mg   78.99% Stable N/A
25Mg   10% Stable N/A
26Mg   11.01% Stable N/A
27Mg  
28Mg  
29Mg  
30Mg  
31Mg  
32Mg  
33Mg  
34Mg  
35Mg  
36Mg  
37Mg  
38Mg  
39Mg  
40Mg  

Regulatory and Health - Health and Safety Parameters and Guidelines

CAS Number CAS7439-95-4
RTECS Number N/A
DOT Hazard Class 4.1
DOT Numbers 2950
EU Number N/A
NFPA Fire Rating 1
NFPA Hazards N/A
NFPA Health Rating 0
NFPA Reactivity Rating 1
Autoignition Point 472 °C
Flashpoint 500 °C

Database Search

List of unique identifiers to search the element in various chemical registry databases

Database Identifier number
CAS Number - Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) CAS7439-95-4
CID Number CID5462224
Gmelin Number N/A
NSC Number N/A
RTECS Number N/A

List of Elements
1 H - Hydrogen
2 He - Helium
3 Li - Lithium
4 Be - Beryllium
5 B - Boron
6 C - Carbon
7 N - Nitrogen
8 O - Oxygen
9 F - Fluorine
10 Ne - Neon
11 Na - Sodium
12 Mg - Magnesium
13 Al - Aluminium
14 Si - Silicon
15 P - Phosphorus
16 S - Sulfur
17 Cl - Chlorine
18 Ar - Argon
19 K - Potassium
20 Ca - Calcium
21 Sc - Scandium
22 Ti - Titanium
23 V - Vanadium
24 Cr - Chromium
25 Mn - Manganese
26 Fe - Iron
27 Co - Cobalt
28 Ni - Nickel
29 Cu - Copper
30 Zn - Zinc
31 Ga - Gallium
32 Ge - Germanium
33 As - Arsenic
34 Se - Selenium
35 Br - Bromine
36 Kr - Krypton
37 Rb - Rubidium
38 Sr - Strontium
39 Y - Yttrium
40 Zr - Zirconium
41 Nb - Niobium
42 Mo - Molybdenum
43 Tc - Technetium
44 Ru - Ruthenium
45 Rh - Rhodium
46 Pd - Palladium
47 Ag - Silver
48 Cd - Cadmium
49 In - Indium
50 Sn - Tin
51 Sb - Antimony
52 Te - Tellurium
53 I - Iodine
54 Xe - Xenon
55 Cs - Cesium
56 Ba - Barium
57 La - Lanthanum
58 Ce - Cerium
59 Pr - Praseodymium
60 Nd - Neodymium
61 Pm - Promethium
62 Sm - Samarium
63 Eu - Europium
64 Gd - Gadolinium
65 Tb - Terbium
66 Dy - Dysprosium
67 Ho - Holmium
68 Er - Erbium
69 Tm - Thulium
70 Yb - Ytterbium
71 Lu - Lutetium
72 Hf - Hafnium
73 Ta - Tantalum
74 W - Tungsten
75 Re - Rhenium
76 Os - Osmium
77 Ir - Iridium
78 Pt - Platinum
79 Au - Gold
80 Hg - Mercury
81 Tl - Thallium
82 Pb - Lead
83 Bi - Bismuth
84 Po - Polonium
85 At - Astatine
86 Rn - Radon
87 Fr - Francium
88 Ra - Radium
89 Ac - Actinium
90 Th - Thorium
91 Pa - Protactinium
92 U - Uranium
93 Np - Neptunium
94 Pu - Plutonium
95 Am - Americium
96 Cm - Curium
97 Bk - Berkelium
98 Cf - Californium
99 Es - Einsteinium
100 Fm - Fermium
101 Md - Mendelevium
102 No - Nobelium
103 Lr - Lawrencium
104 Rf - Rutherfordium
105 Db - Dubnium
106 Sg - Seaborgium
107 Bh - Bohrium
108 Hs - Hassium
109 Mt - Meitnerium
110 Ds - Darmstadtium
111 Rg - Roentgenium
112 Cn - Copernicium
113 Nh - Nihonium
114 Fl - Flerovium
115 Mc - Moscovium
116 Lv - Livermorium
117 Ts - Tennessine
118 Og - Oganesson
Metalloid
Nonmetals
Other Nonmetals
Halogens Noble Gas
Metals
Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals
Transition Metals Post-Transition Metals
Lanthanide Actinide